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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081125

Human Milk Adiponectin and Leptin and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

1
School of Molecular Sciences, M310, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
2
School of Human Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
3
Centre for Applied Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
4
School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
5
School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, Perth, WA 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 17 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Abstract

Human milk (HM) adipokines may influence infant feeding patterns, appetite regulation, and body composition (BC). The associations between concentrations/calculated daily intakes (CDI) of HM adipokines in the first 12 months postpartum and maternal/term infant BC, and infant breastfeeding parameters were investigated. BC of breastfeeding dyads (n = 20) was measured at 2, 5, 9, and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (infants) and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants/mothers). 24-h milk intake and feeding frequency were measured along with whole milk adiponectin and skim and whole milk leptin (SML and WML) and CDI were calculated. Statistical analysis used linear regression/mixed effects models; results were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Adipokine concentrations did not associate with infant BC. Higher CDI of adiponectin were associated with lower infant fat-free mass (FFM; p = 0.005) and FFM index (FFMI; p = 0.009) and higher fat mass (FM; p < 0.001), FM index (FMI; p < 0.001), and %FM (p < 0.001). Higher CDI of SML were associated with higher infant FM (p < 0.001), FMI (p < 0.001), and %FM (p = 0.002). At 12 months, higher CDI of WML were associated with larger increases in infant adiposity (2–12 month: FM, p = 0.0006; %FM, p = 0.0004); higher CDI of SML were associated with a larger decrease in FFMI (5–12 months: p = 0.0004). Intakes of HM adipokines differentially influence development of infant BC in the first year of life, which is a critical window of infant programming and may potentially influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipokines; adiponectin; leptin; breastfeeding; infant; body composition; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy; ultrasound skinfolds; human milk; lactation adipokines; adiponectin; leptin; breastfeeding; infant; body composition; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy; ultrasound skinfolds; human milk; lactation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Gridneva, Z.; Kugananthan, S.; Rea, A.; Lai, C.T.; Ward, L.C.; Murray, K.; Hartmann, P.E.; Geddes, D.T. Human Milk Adiponectin and Leptin and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1125.

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