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Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 809; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070809

Fat Loss in Continuous Enteral Feeding of the Preterm Infant: How Much, What and When Is It Lost?

1
Neonatology Department, La Paz University Hospital, Autonomous University of Madrid, 28046 Madrid, Spain
2
Bioactivity and Food Analysis Department, Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL, CSIC-UAM), Autonomous University of Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain
3
Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department, La Paz University Hospital, Autonomous University of Madrid, 28046 Madrid, Spain
4
Carlos III Health Institute, Maternal and Child Health and Development Research Network, 48903 Barakaldo, Bizkaia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 June 2018 / Revised: 19 June 2018 / Accepted: 22 June 2018 / Published: 23 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breastfeeding and Human Lactation)
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Abstract

Human milk fat is a concentrated source of energy and provides essential and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to previous experiments, human milk fat is partially lost during continuous enteral nutrition. However, these experiments were done over relatively short infusion times, and a complete profile of the lost fatty acids was never measured. Whether this loss happens considering longer infusion times or if some fatty acids are lost more than others remain unknown. Pooled breast milk was infused through a feeding tube by a peristaltic pump over a period of 30 min and 4, 12 and 24 h at 2 mL/h. Adsorbed fat was extracted from the tubes, and the fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total fat loss (average fatty acid loss) after 24 h was 0.6 ± 0.1%. Total fat loss after 24 h infusion was 0.6 ± 0.1% of the total fat infused, although the highest losses occur in the first 30 min of infusion (13.0 ± 1.6%). Short-medium chain (0.7%, p = 0.15), long chain (0.6%, p = 0.56), saturated (0.7%, p = 0.4), monounsaturated (0.5%, p = 0.15), polyunsaturated fatty (0.7%, p = 0.15), linoleic (0.7%, p = 0.25), and docosahexaenoic acids (0.6%, p = 0.56) were not selectively adsorbed to the tube. However, very long chain fatty (0.9%, p = 0.04), alpha-linolenic (1.6%, p = 0.02) and arachidonic acids (1%, p = 0.02) were selectively adsorbed and, therefore, lost in a greater proportion than other fatty acids. In all cases, the magnitude of the loss was clinically low. View Full-Text
Keywords: preterm infant; enteral nutrition; lipids; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-6 fatty acids; Docosahexaenoic acid; Arachidonic acid; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids preterm infant; enteral nutrition; lipids; omega-3 fatty acids; omega-6 fatty acids; Docosahexaenoic acid; Arachidonic acid; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Zozaya, C.; García-Serrano, A.; Fontecha, J.; Redondo-Bravo, L.; Sánchez-González, V.; Montes, M.T.; Saenz de Pipaón, M. Fat Loss in Continuous Enteral Feeding of the Preterm Infant: How Much, What and When Is It Lost? Nutrients 2018, 10, 809.

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