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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060728

Short-Term Exposure to High Sucrose Levels near Weaning Has a Similar Long-Lasting Effect on Hypertension as a Long-Term Exposure in Rats

1
Department of Physiology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
2
Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
3
Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
4
Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán”, Vasco de Quiroga 15, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14000, Mexico
5
Department of Pharmacology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “Ignacio Chávez”, Juan Badiano 1, Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 April 2018 / Revised: 31 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 June 2018 / Published: 6 June 2018
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Abstract

Adverse conditions during early developmental stages permanently modify the metabolic function of organisms through epigenetic changes. Exposure to high sugar diets during gestation and/or lactation affects susceptibility to metabolic syndrome or hypertension in adulthood. The effect of a high sugar diet for shorter time lapses remains unclear. Here we studied the effect of short-term sucrose ingestion near weaning (postnatal days 12 and 28) (STS) and its effect after long-term ingestion, for a period of seven months (LTS) in rats. Rats receiving sucrose for seven months develop metabolic syndrome (MS). The mechanisms underlying hypertension in this model and those that underlie the effects of short-term exposure have not been studied. We explore NO and endothelin-1 concentration, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression, fatty acid participation and the involvement of oxidative stress (OS) after LTS and STS. Blood pressure increased to similar levels in adult rats that received sucrose during short- and long-term glucose exposure. The endothelin-1 concentration increased only in LTS rats. eNOS and SOD2 expression determined by Western blot and total antioxidant capacity were diminished in both groups. Saturated fatty acids and arachidonic acid were only decreased in LTS rats. In conclusion, a high-sugar diet during STS increases the hypertension predisposition in adulthood to as high a level as LTS, and the mechanisms involved have similarities (participation of OS and eNOS and SOD expression) and differences (fatty acids and arachidonic acid only participate in LTS and an elevated level of endothelin-1 was only found in LTS) in both conditions. Changes in the diet during short exposure times in early developmental stages have long-lasting effects in determining hypertension susceptibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical window; hypertension; sucrose; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; oxidative stress; fatty acids critical window; hypertension; sucrose; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; oxidative stress; fatty acids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Villegas-Romero, M.; Castrejón-Téllez, V.; Pérez-Torres, I.; Rubio-Ruiz, M.E.; Carreón-Torres, E.; Díaz-Díaz, E.; del Valle-Mondragón, L.; Guarner-Lans, V. Short-Term Exposure to High Sucrose Levels near Weaning Has a Similar Long-Lasting Effect on Hypertension as a Long-Term Exposure in Rats. Nutrients 2018, 10, 728.

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