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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060714

Supplementation of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Cyclic Glycine-Proline in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Parkinson Patients: Potential Treatment to Improve Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Function

1
Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
2
Centre for Brain Research, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
3
Brain Research New Zealand, A Centre of Research Excellence, New Zealand
4
New Zealand Brain Research Institute, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
5
Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch 8041, New Zealand
6
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
7
Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
8
Department of Psychology, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8041, New Zealand
9
Department of Geriatric Medicine, Auckland District Health Board, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand
10
Department of Neurology, Christchurch Public Hospital, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
Authors with similar contributions to the research project.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
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Abstract

Background: Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) function is impaired in Parkinson disease. Cyclic glycine-proline (cGP), a metabolite of IGF-1, is neuroprotective through improving IGF-1 function. Parkinson disease patients score lower on Hospital-associated Anxiety and Depression Scale after supplementing blackcurrant anthocyanins (BCA), which may be associated with IGF-1 function. We evaluated the changes of cGP and IGF-1 before and after the supplementation. Methods: Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from 11 male patients before and after 28 day supplementation of BCA. The concentrations of IGF-1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3, and cGP were measured using ELISA and HPLC-MS assays. The presence of cGP in the BCA was evaluated. Results: cGP presented in the BCA. BCA supplementation increased the concentration of cGP (p < 0.01), but not IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in the CSF. CSF concentration of cGP was correlated with plasma concentration of cGP (R = 0.68, p = 0.01) and cGP/IGF-1 molar ratio (R = 0.66, p = 0.01). The CSF/plasma ratio was high in cGP and low in IGF-1 and IGFBP-3. Conclusion: cGP is a natural nutrient to the BCA. The increased CSF cGP in Parkinson disease patients may result from the central uptake of plasma cGP. Given neurotrophic function, oral availability, and effective central uptake of cGP, the BCA has the potential to be developed to treat neurological conditions with IGF-1 deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyclic Glycine-Proline (cGP); bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1); Parkinson disease; blackcurrant anthocyanins; autocrine regulation; cerebrospinal fluid; central uptake cyclic Glycine-Proline (cGP); bioavailability of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1); Parkinson disease; blackcurrant anthocyanins; autocrine regulation; cerebrospinal fluid; central uptake
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Fan, D.; Alamri, Y.; Liu, K.; MacAskill, M.; Harris, P.; Brimble, M.; Dalrymple-Alford, J.; Prickett, T.; Menzies, O.; Laurenson, A.; Anderson, T.; Guan, J. Supplementation of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins Increased Cyclic Glycine-Proline in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Parkinson Patients: Potential Treatment to Improve Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Function. Nutrients 2018, 10, 714.

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