Next Article in Journal
Mangosteen Extract Shows a Potent Insulin Sensitizing Effect in Obese Female Patients: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Pilot Study
Next Article in Special Issue
In Silico Investigation of the Pharmacological Mechanisms of Beneficial Effects of Ginkgo biloba L. on Alzheimer’s Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Zinc, Magnesium, Selenium and Depression: A Review of the Evidence, Potential Mechanisms and Implications
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050585

Chemopreventive Activities of Sulforaphane and Its Metabolites in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells

1
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norfolk, Norwich NR4 7UQ, UK
2
School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ, UK
3
College of Horticulture and Forestry Science Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 4 May 2018 / Published: 9 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Dietary Supplements)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2742 KB, uploaded 9 May 2018]   |  

Abstract

Sulforaphane (SFN) exhibits chemopreventive effects through various mechanisms. However, few studies have focused on the bioactivities of its metabolites. Here, three metabolites derived from SFN were studied, known as sulforaphane glutathione, sulforaphane cysteine and sulforaphane-N-acetylcysteine. Their effects on cell viability, DNA damage, tumorigenicity, cell migration and adhesion were measured in human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and their anti-angiogenetic effects were determined in a 3D co-culture model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and pericytes. Results indicated that these metabolites at high doses decreased cancer cell viability, induced DNA damage and inhibited motility, and impaired endothelial cell migration and tube formation. Additionally, pre-treatment with low doses of SFN metabolites protected against H2O2 challenge. The activation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway and the induction of intracellular glutathione (GSH) played an important role in the cytoprotective effects of SFN metabolites. In conclusion, SFN metabolites exhibited similar cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects to SFN, which proves the necessity to study the mechanisms of action of not only SFN but also of its metabolites. Based on the different tissue distribution profiles of these metabolites, the most relevant chemical forms can be selected for targeted chemoprevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulforaphane; chemoprevention; sulforaphane metabolites; Nrf2; GSH sulforaphane; chemoprevention; sulforaphane metabolites; Nrf2; GSH
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, P.; Wang, W.; Zhou, Z.; Smith, A.J.O.; Bowater, R.P.; Wormstone, I.M.; Chen, Y.; Bao, Y. Chemopreventive Activities of Sulforaphane and Its Metabolites in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells. Nutrients 2018, 10, 585.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top