Next Article in Journal
Serum Lycopene Concentrations and Associations with Clinical Outcomes in a Cohort of Maternal-Infant Dyads
Previous Article in Journal
Chemopreventive Effect of Aster glehni on Inflammation-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Mice
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020203

Toll-Like Receptors: Regulators of the Immune Response in the Human Gut

1
DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., R & D Human Nutrition and Health, P.O. Box 2676, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
2
University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1211 KB, uploaded 13 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are powerful molecular regulators by which the immune system may “sense” the environment and protect the host from pathogens or endogenous threats. In mammalian cells, several TLRs were identified with a tissue and cell type-specific distribution. Understanding the functions of specific TLRs is crucial for the development and discovery of compounds useful to maintaining or re-establishing homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Due to their relevance in regulating the inflammatory response in the GIT, we will focus here on TLR2, TLR4, and TLR5. In particular, we describe (a) the molecular pathways activated by the stimulation of these receptors with their known bacterial ligands; (b) the non-bacterial ligands known to interact directly with TLR2 and TLR4 and their soluble forms. The scope of this minireview is to highlight the importance of bacterial and non-bacterial compounds in affecting the gut immune functions via the activation of the TLRs. View Full-Text
Keywords: TLR2; TLR4; TLR5; immune system; gastrointestinal tract; bacterial ligands TLR2; TLR4; TLR5; immune system; gastrointestinal tract; bacterial ligands
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hug, H.; Mohajeri, M.H.; La Fata, G. Toll-Like Receptors: Regulators of the Immune Response in the Human Gut. Nutrients 2018, 10, 203.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top