Next Article in Journal
Early-Life Exposure to Non-Nutritive Sweeteners and the Developmental Origins of Childhood Obesity: Global Evidence from Human and Rodent Studies
Next Article in Special Issue
Claimed Effects, Outcome Variables and Methods of Measurement for Health Claims on Foods Related to Vision Proposed Under Regulation (EC) 1924/2006
Previous Article in Journal
The Effects of Carbohydrates, in Isolation and Combined with Caffeine, on Cognitive Performance and Mood—Current Evidence and Future Directions
Previous Article in Special Issue
Early-Life Iron Deficiency Reduces Brain Iron Content and Alters Brain Tissue Composition Despite Iron Repletion: A Neuroimaging Assessment
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020193

The Macular Carotenoids are Associated with Cognitive Function in Preadolescent Children

1
Department of Psychology, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
2
Institute of Gerontology, Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, College of Public Health, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
3
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, Champaign, IL 61820, USA
4
Departments of Psychology and Physical Therapy, Movement & Rehabilitation Sciences, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 December 2017 / Revised: 31 January 2018 / Accepted: 6 February 2018 / Published: 10 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Function of the Central Nervous System)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [563 KB, uploaded 10 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

The macular carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) are obtained via diet and accumulate in the central retina where they are referred to as macular pigment. The density of this biomarker (macular pigment optical density; MPOD) has been positively correlated with cognitive functioning via measures of global cognition, processing speed, and visual-spatial abilities, among others. Although improvements in cognitive function have been found in adults, much less is known about how L and Z intake may support or improve cognitive functioning during periods of rapid developmental change, such as childhood and pre-adolescence. This study examined the relationship between MPOD and cognitive functioning in 51 7–13-year-old children (51% female). MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) optimized for this age group. Cognitive function was assessed using the Woodcock-Johnson III (composite standard scores were obtained for Brief Intellectual Ability, Verbal Ability, Cognitive Efficiency, Processing Speed, and Executive Processes). In this sample, MPOD was significantly related to Executive Processes, r(47) = 0.288, p < 0.05, and Brief Intellectual Ability, r(47) = 0.268, p < 0.05. The relationship to Cognitive Efficiency was positive and trending but not significant, r(49) = 0.206, p = 0.074. In general, these data are consistent with those of adults showing a link between higher carotenoid status and improved cognitive functioning. View Full-Text
Keywords: macular pigment; lutein; cognition; children macular pigment; lutein; cognition; children
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Saint, S.E.; Renzi-Hammond, L.M.; Khan, N.A.; Hillman, C.H.; Frick, J.E.; Hammond, B.R. The Macular Carotenoids are Associated with Cognitive Function in Preadolescent Children. Nutrients 2018, 10, 193.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top