Macronutrient Composition and Food Form Affect Glucose and Insulin Responses in Humans
AbstractGlycaemic index (GI) is used as an indicator to guide consumers in making healthier food choices. We compared the GI, insulin index (II), and the area under the curve for blood glucose and insulin as glucose (GR) and insulin responses (IR) of a newly developed liquid nutritional formula with one commercially available liquid product with different types of carbohydrates. We then evaluated the glucose and insulin responses of two test foods with comparable energy density and protein percentage but presented in different food forms (liquid vs. solid). Fourteen healthy women participated in the study. GI, II, GR, and IR were assessed after (independent) consumption of two liquid products and a solid breakfast meal. The two liquid foods showed comparable GI, whilst the liquid form appeared to produce lower median GI (25 vs. 54), and II (52 vs. 98) values compared to the solid breakfast (p < 0.02). The median GR and IR for solid breakfast were respectively 44% and 45% higher compared to the liquid product (p < 0.02). Liquid formulas with different carbohydrate qualities produced comparable glucose responses, while foods with comparable energy density and protein percentage but different food form elicited differential effects on GI, II, GR, and IR. Nutrient quality and food form need to be taken into consideration when developing low GI products to manage glycaemic responses. View Full-Text
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Shafaeizadeh, S.; Muhardi, L.; Henry, C.J.; van de Heijning, B.J.M.; van der Beek, E.M. Macronutrient Composition and Food Form Affect Glucose and Insulin Responses in Humans. Nutrients 2018, 10, 188.
Shafaeizadeh S, Muhardi L, Henry CJ, van de Heijning BJM, van der Beek EM. Macronutrient Composition and Food Form Affect Glucose and Insulin Responses in Humans. Nutrients. 2018; 10(2):188.Chicago/Turabian Style
Shafaeizadeh, Shila; Muhardi, Leilani; Henry, Christiani J.; van de Heijning, Bert J.M.; van der Beek, Eline M. 2018. "Macronutrient Composition and Food Form Affect Glucose and Insulin Responses in Humans." Nutrients 10, no. 2: 188.
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