Next Article in Journal
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Capparis spinosa as a Medicinal Plant
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Chinese Healthy Eating Index
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020115

Secular Trends in Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Distribution among Adult Females (1991–2015): Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 12 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [777 KB, uploaded 24 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

With rapid nutrition transition in China, dietary intake and nutritional status of women has gained more and more attention in the past decades. This study aimed to investigate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intakes among Chinese adult females. The longitudinal data are from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS, 1991–2015). Information on the intake of energy and macronutrient was obtained from consecutive three-day dietary recall techniques and compared with the Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mixed-effect models were performed to evaluate temporal trends of total energy and macronutrient intake. From 1991 to 2015, a significant reduction in daily energy, protein and carbohydrate intakes was seen among all adult females (p < 0.001). Daily fat intake, the proportion of energy from fat, the proportion of females consuming more than 30% of energy from fat and less than 50% of energy from carbohydrate were observed significant increment in the present study (p < 0.001). In 2015, the proportion met the DRI for energy and protein intakes were 47.0% and 48.0%, respectively; the proportion with lower carbohydrate and higher fat intakes compare with the DRI were 45.5% and 66.9%, respectively. Further nutritional education and policy interventions still needed to improve nutrition status for Chinese females. View Full-Text
Keywords: female; nutrition transition; macronutrient; dietary reference intake female; nutrition transition; macronutrient; dietary reference intake
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, J.; Su, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, B. Secular Trends in Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Distribution among Adult Females (1991–2015): Results from the China Health and Nutrition Survey. Nutrients 2018, 10, 115.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top