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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020111

Maternal Vitamin D Status and Infant Infection

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2
Larsson-Rosenquist Foundation Mother-Milk-Infant Center of Research Excellence, Health Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3
Immunoscience Medical Affairs, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 345 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10154, USA
4
Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
5
Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
6
Department of Biostatistics, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
7
Department of Psychology, University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd, Kansas City, KS 66160, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2017 / Revised: 2 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 23 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Changing Times for Vitamin D and Health)
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Abstract

Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy may modulate fetal immune system development and infant susceptibility to infections. Vitamin D deficiency is common during pregnancy, particularly among African American (AA) women. Our objective was to compare maternal vitamin D status (plasma 25(OH)D concentration) during pregnancy and first-year infections in the offspring of African American (AA) and non-AA women. We used medical records to record frequency and type of infections during the first year of life of 220 term infants (69 AA, 151 non-AA) whose mothers participated in the Kansas University DHA Outcomes Study. AA and non-AA groups were compared for maternal 25(OH)D by Mann–Whitney U-test. Compared to non-AA women, AA women were more likely to be vitamin D deficient (<50 nmol/L; 84 vs. 37%, p < 0.001), and more of their infants had at least one infection in the first 6 months (78.3% and 59.6% of infants, respectively, p = 0.022). We next explored the relationship between maternal plasma 25(OH)D concentration and infant infections using Spearman correlations. Maternal 25(OH)D concentration was inversely correlated with the number of all infections (p = 0.033), eye, ear, nose, and throat (EENT) infections (p = 0.043), and skin infection (p = 0.021) in the first 6 months. A model that included maternal education, income, and 25(OH)D identified maternal education as the only significant predictor of infection risk in the first 6 months (p = 0.045); however, maternal education, income, and 25(OH)D were all significantly lower in AA women compared to non-AA women . The high degree of correlation between these variables does not allow determination of which factor is driving the risk of infection; however, the one that is most easily remediated is vitamin D status. It would be of value to learn if vitamin D supplementation in this at-risk group could ameliorate at least part of the increased infection risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: infection; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; vitamin D; pregnancy; infancy; maternal nutrition; African Americans infection; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol; vitamin D; pregnancy; infancy; maternal nutrition; African Americans
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Moukarzel, S.; Ozias, M.; Kerling, E.; Christifano, D.; Wick, J.; Colombo, J.; Carlson, S. Maternal Vitamin D Status and Infant Infection. Nutrients 2018, 10, 111.

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