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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 89; doi:10.3390/nu10010089

Coffee Intake and Liver Steatosis: A Population Study in a Mediterranean Area

1
Ambulatory of Clinical Nutrition, National Institute of Gastroenterology-Research Hospital, IRCCS “S. de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
2
Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, National Institute of Gastroenterology-Research Hospital, IRCCS “S. de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
3
National Research Council, Neuroscience Institute, Aging Branch, 35128 Padova, Italy
4
Clinical Trial Unit, National Institute of Gastroenterology-Research Hospital, IRCCS “S. de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
5
Unit of Gastroenterology, National Institute of Gastroenterology-Research Hospital, IRCCS “S. de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
6
Laboratory of Clinical Pathology, National Institute of Gastroenterology-Research Hospital, IRCCS “S. de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
7
Scientific and Ethical Committee, University Hospital Policlinico, 70124 Bari, Italy
8
National Institute of Gastroenterology-Research Hospital, IRCCS “S. de Bellis”, Castellana Grotte, 70013 Bari, Italy
The MICOL study group also includes: De Michele Giampiero, Mastrosimini Anna, Iacovazzi Palma, Laboratory of Clinic Pathology, IRCCS Saverio de Bellis, Castellana Grotte, Bari, Italy; Chiloiro Marisa, Noviello Marisa, Unit of Radiology, IRCCS Saverio de Bellis, Castellana Grotte, Bari, Italy; Burattini Osvaldo, Pugliese Vittorio, Laboratory of Biostatistic and Epidemiology, IRCCS Saverio de Bellis, Castellana Grotte, Bari, Italy.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 December 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract

Coffee drinking seems to have several beneficial effects on health outcomes. However, the effect on hepatic steatosis, depending on a high alcohol consumption (AFLD, alcoholic fatty liver disease) or on metabolic factors (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD), is still equivocal. Thus, we aimed to explore the potential association between coffee consumption and the presence and severity of hepatic steatosis in people with NAFLD or AFLD. In this cross-sectional study, coffee drinking was recorded using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and categorized as yes vs. no and as 0, 1, 2, ≥3. The degree of fatty liver was assessed through a standardized ultrasound examination (score 0 to 6, with higher values reflecting higher severity). Liver steatosis was classified as NAFLD or AFLD on daily alcohol intake >30 g/day for men and >20 g/day for women. This study included 2819 middle-aged participants; the great majority were coffee drinkers (86.1%). After adjusting for 12 potential confounders, drinking coffee was not associated with decreased odds for NAFLD (n = 916) (odds ratio, OR = 0.93; 95% confidence intervals, CI: 0.72–1.20) or AFLD (n = 276) (OR = 1.20; 95% CI: 0.66–2.0). The consumption of coffee (categorized as yes vs. no), or an increased consumption of coffee were not associated with the presence of mild, moderate or severe liver steatosis in either NAFLD or AFLD. In conclusion, coffee intake was not associated with any lower odds of hepatic steatosis in either non-alcoholic or alcoholic forms in this large cohort of South Italian individuals. View Full-Text
Keywords: fatty liver; coffee; caffeine; ultrasound; epidemiology fatty liver; coffee; caffeine; ultrasound; epidemiology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Veronese, N.; Notarnicola, M.; Cisternino, A.M.; Reddavide, R.; Inguaggiato, R.; Guerra, V.; Rotolo, O.; Zinzi, I.; Leandro, G.; Correale, M.; Tutino, V.; Misciagna, G.; Osella, A.R.; Bonfiglio, C.; Giannelli, G.; Gabriella Caruso, M.; for the MICOL Group. Coffee Intake and Liver Steatosis: A Population Study in a Mediterranean Area. Nutrients 2018, 10, 89.

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