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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(9), 947; doi:10.3390/rs9090947

Circum-Arctic Changes in the Flow of Glaciers and Ice Caps from Satellite SAR Data between the 1990s and 2017

1
Gamma Remote Sensing, 3073 Gümligen, Switzerland
2
Department of Geography, University of Zurich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland
3
Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 12 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Glaciers)
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Abstract

We computed circum-Arctic surface velocity maps of glaciers and ice caps over the Canadian Arctic, Svalbard and the Russian Arctic for at least two times between the 1990s and 2017 using satellite SAR data. Our analyses are mainly performed with offset-tracking of ALOS-1 PALSAR-1 (2007–2011) and Sentinel-1 (2015–2017) data. In certain cases JERS-1 SAR (1994–1998), TerraSAR-X (2008–2012), Radarsat-2 (2009–2016) and ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 (2015–2016) data were used to fill-in spatial or temporal gaps. Validation of the latest Sentinel-1 results was accomplished by means of SAR data at higher spatial resolution (Radarsat-2 Wide Ultra Fine) and ground-based measurements. In general, we observe a deceleration of flow velocities for the major tidewater glaciers in the Canadian Arctic and an increase in frontal velocity along with a retreat of frontal positions over Svalbard and the Russian Arctic. However, all regions have strong accelerations for selected glaciers. The latter developments can be well traced based on the very high temporal sampling of Sentinel-1 acquisitions since 2015, revealing new insights in glacier dynamics. For example, surges on Spitsbergen (e.g., Negribreen, Nathorsbreen, Penckbreen and Strongbreen) have a different characteristic and timing than those over Eastern Austfonna and Edgeoya (e.g., Basin 3, Basin 2 and Stonebreen). Events similar to those ongoing on Eastern Austofonna were also observed over the Vavilov Ice Cap on Severnaya Zemlya and possibly Simony Glacier on Franz-Josef Land. Collectively, there seems to be a recently increasing number of glaciers with frontal destabilization over Eastern Svalbard and the Russian Arctic compared to the 1990s. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arctic; glaciers; ice caps; flow; surge; PALSAR-1; Sentinel-1 Arctic; glaciers; ice caps; flow; surge; PALSAR-1; Sentinel-1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Strozzi, T.; Paul, F.; Wiesmann, A.; Schellenberger, T.; Kääb, A. Circum-Arctic Changes in the Flow of Glaciers and Ice Caps from Satellite SAR Data between the 1990s and 2017. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 947.

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