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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(9), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9090918

Scale- and Region-Dependence in Landscape-PM2.5 Correlation: Implications for Urban Planning

School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China
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Received: 16 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 2 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Observation in Planning for Sustainable Urban Development)
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Abstract

Under rapid urbanization, many cities in China suffer from serious fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution. As the emission sources or adsorption sinks, land use and the corresponding landscape pattern unavoidably affect the concentration. However, the correlation varies with different regions and scales, leaving a significant gap for urban planning. This study clarifies the correlation with the aid of in situ and satellite-based spatial datasets over six urban agglomerations in China. Two coverage and four landscape indices are adopted to represent land use and landscape pattern. Specifically, the coverage indices include the area ratios of forest (F_PLAND) and built-up areas (C_PLAND). The landscape indices refer to the perimeter-area fractal dimension index (PAFRAC), interspersion and juxtaposition index (IJI), aggregation index (AI), Shannon’s diversity index (SHDI). Then, the correlation between PM2.5 concentration with the selected indices are evaluated from supporting the potential urban planning. Results show that the correlations are weak with the in situ PM2.5 concentration, which are significant with the regional value. It means that land use coverage and landscape pattern affect PM2.5 at a relatively large scale. Furthermore, regional PM2.5 concentration negatively correlate to F_PLAND and positively to C_PLAND (significance at p < 0.05), indicating that forest helps to improve air quality, while built-up areas worsen the pollution. Finally, the heterogeneous landscape presents positive correlation to the regional PM2.5 concentration in most regions, except for the urban agglomeration with highly-developed urban (i.e., the Jing-Jin-Ji and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomerations). It suggests that centralized urbanization would be helpful for PM2.5 pollution controlling by reducing the emission sources in most regions. Based on the results, the potential urban planning is proposed for controlling PM2.5 pollution for each urban agglomeration. View Full-Text
Keywords: landscape; land use; PM2.5 concentration; spatial variability; China landscape; land use; PM2.5 concentration; spatial variability; China
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Feng, H.; Zou, B.; Tang, Y. Scale- and Region-Dependence in Landscape-PM2.5 Correlation: Implications for Urban Planning. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 918.

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