Two-Step Downscaling of Trmm 3b43 V7 Precipitation in Contrasting Climatic Regions With Sparse Monitoring: The Case of Ecuador in Tropical South America
Departamento de Recursos Hídricos y Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca 010151, Ecuador
IERSE, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del Azuay, Cuenca 010151, Ecuador
Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca 010151, Ecuador
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 17 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
Spatial prediction of precipitation with high resolution is a challenging task in regions with strong climate variability and scarce monitoring. For this purpose, the quasi-continuous supply of information from satellite imagery is commonly used to complement in situ data. However, satellite images of precipitation are available at coarse resolutions, and require adequate methods for spatial downscaling and calibration. The objective of this paper is to introduce and evaluate a 2-step spatial downscaling approach for monthly precipitation applied to TRMM 3B43 (from
27 km to 5 km resolution), resulting in 5 downscaled products for the period 01-2001/12-2011. The methodology was evaluated in 3 contrasting climatic regions of Ecuador. In step 1, bilinear resampling was applied over TRMM, and used as a reference product. The second step introduces further variability, and consists of four alternative gauge-satellite merging methods: (1) regression with in situ stations, (2) regression kriging with in situ stations, (3) regression with in situ stations and auxiliary variables, and (4) regression kriging with in situ stations and auxiliary variables. The first 2 methods only use the resampled TRMM data set as an independent variable. The last 2 methods enrich these models with auxiliary environmental factors, incorporating atmospheric and land variables. The results showed that no product outperforms the others in every region. In general, the methods with residual kriging correction outperformed the regression models. Regression kriging with situ data provided the best representation in the Coast, while regression kriging with in situ and auxiliary data generated the best results in the Andes. In the Amazon, no product outperformed the resampled TRMM images, probably due to the low density of in situ stations. These results are relevant to enhance satellite precipitation, depending on the availability of in situ data, auxiliary satellite variables and the particularities of the climatic regions.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Ulloa, J.; Ballari, D.; Campozano, L.; Samaniego, E. Two-Step Downscaling of Trmm 3b43 V7 Precipitation in Contrasting Climatic Regions With Sparse Monitoring: The Case of Ecuador in Tropical South America. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 758.
Ulloa J, Ballari D, Campozano L, Samaniego E. Two-Step Downscaling of Trmm 3b43 V7 Precipitation in Contrasting Climatic Regions With Sparse Monitoring: The Case of Ecuador in Tropical South America. Remote Sensing. 2017; 9(7):758.
Ulloa, Jacinto; Ballari, Daniela; Campozano, Lenin; Samaniego, Esteban. 2017. "Two-Step Downscaling of Trmm 3b43 V7 Precipitation in Contrasting Climatic Regions With Sparse Monitoring: The Case of Ecuador in Tropical South America." Remote Sens. 9, no. 7: 758.
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