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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(5), 467;

Ground Ammonia Concentrations over China Derived from Satellite and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, International Institute for Earth System Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Centre for Resources, Environment and Food Security, Key Lab of Plant-Soil Interactions of MOE, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China
Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing 210023, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yang Liu, Jun Wang, Omar Torres, Richard Müller and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 27 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 7 May 2017 / Published: 15 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Atmospheric Pollution)
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As a primary basic gas in the atmosphere, atmospheric ammonia (NH3) plays an important role in determining air quality, environmental degradation, and climate change. However, the limited ground observation currently presents a barrier to estimating ground NH3 concentrations on a regional scale, thus preventing a full understanding of the atmospheric processes in which this trace gas is involved. This study estimated the ground NH3 concentrations over China, combining the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite NH3 columns and NH3 profiles from an atmospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). The estimated ground NH3 concentrations showed agreement with the variability in annual ground NH3 measurements from the Chinese Nationwide Nitrogen Deposition Monitoring Network (NNDMN). Great spatial heterogeneity of ground NH3 concentrations was found across China, and high ground NH3 concentrations were found in Northern China, Southeastern China, and some areas in Xinjiang Province. The maximum ground NH3 concentrations over China occurred in summer, followed by spring, autumn, and winter seasons, which were in agreement with the seasonal patterns of NH3 emissions in China. This study suggested that a combination of NH3 profiles from CTMs and NH3 columns from satellite obtained reliable ground NH3 concentrations over China. View Full-Text
Keywords: NH3; satellite; CTM; spatial; ground NH3; satellite; CTM; spatial; ground

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Liu, L.; Zhang, X.; Xu, W.; Liu, X.; Lu, X.; Wang, S.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, L. Ground Ammonia Concentrations over China Derived from Satellite and Atmospheric Transport Modeling. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 467.

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