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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(5), 450; doi:10.3390/rs9050450

A Software-Defined GNSS Reflectometry Recording Receiver with Wide-Bandwidth, Multi-Band Capability and Digital Beam-Forming

1
Earth Observation Group, Institute of Space Sciences (CSIC/IEEC), 08193 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
2
European Space and Technology Center, European Space Agency, 2200 AG Noordwijk, The Netherlands
Current affiliation: Spire Global UK Limited, Glasgow, G3 8JU, UK.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhenhong Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 10 March 2017 / Revised: 26 April 2017 / Accepted: 1 May 2017 / Published: 6 May 2017
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Abstract

In this paper, we present the Software PARIS Interferometric Receiver (SPIR), a high-speed GNSS reflectometry recording receiver which has been designed and implemented with the primary goal of demonstrating the synoptic capabilities of the interferometric technique in GNSS Reflectrometry. Thanks to the use of large bandwidth GNSS signals, this technique is advantageous in comparison to the so-called clean-replica processing, when sea surface altimetric applications are pursued. The SPIR receiver down-converts, samples, and records the GNSS signals acquired by the sixteen elements of two antenna arrays. It can operate at any of the common GNSS L1, L2, or L5 bands. Digital beam-forming and signal processing is performed off-line by its dedicated signal processor, so that the GNSS reflectometry can be applied to different transmitting satellites using the same set of recorded signals. Alternatively, different processing techniques can be compared by applying them to exactly the same signals. This article focuses on the SPIR instrument hardware and software, as well as the remote sensing observables that can be obtained using this equipment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R); Passive Reflectometry and Interferometry System (PARIS); Signals of Opportunity (SoOP); Bistatic radar; Hardware; High-speed Recorder; Software-defined; Software correlator; Digital Beamforming; GEROS-ISS; Sea-surface Altimetry Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R); Passive Reflectometry and Interferometry System (PARIS); Signals of Opportunity (SoOP); Bistatic radar; Hardware; High-speed Recorder; Software-defined; Software correlator; Digital Beamforming; GEROS-ISS; Sea-surface Altimetry
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ribó, S.; Arco-Fernández, J.C.; Cardellach, E.; Fabra, F.; Li, W.; Nogués-Correig, O.; Rius, A.; Martín-Neira, M. A Software-Defined GNSS Reflectometry Recording Receiver with Wide-Bandwidth, Multi-Band Capability and Digital Beam-Forming. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 450.

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