Next Article in Journal
Automatic UAV Image Geo-Registration by Matching UAV Images to Georeferenced Image Data
Previous Article in Journal
Improving Fractional Impervious Surface Mapping Performance through Combination of DMSP-OLS and MODIS NDVI Data
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(4), 374; doi:10.3390/rs9040374

Phenological Observations on Classical Prehistoric Sites in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River Based on Landsat NDVI Time Series

1
Remote Sensing of Non-renewable Resources Laboratory, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, 00200 Nairobi, Kenya
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicola Masini, Alfredo R. Huete and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 4 April 2017 / Accepted: 13 April 2017 / Published: 17 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [11612 KB, uploaded 17 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Buried archeological features show up as crop marks that are mostly visible using high-resolution image data. Such data are costly and restricted to small regions and time domains. However, a time series of freely available medium resolution imagery can be employed to detect crop growth changes to reveal subtle surface marks in large areas. This paper aims to study the classical Chinese settlements of Taosi and Erlitou over large areas using Landsat NDVI time series crop phenology to determine the optimum periods for detection and monitoring of crop anomalies. Burial areas (such as the palace area and the sacrificial area) were selected as the research area while the surrounding empty fields with a low density of ancient features were used as reference regions. Landsat NDVI covering two years’ growth periods of wheat and maize were computed and analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Euclidean distance. Similarities or disparities between the burial areas and their empty areas were computed using the Hausdorff distance. Based on the phenology of crop growth, the time series NDVI images of winter wheat and summer maize were generated to analyze crop anomalies in the archeological sites. Results show that the Hausdorff distance was high during the critical stages of water for both crops and that the images of high Hausdorff distance can provide more obvious subsurface archeological information. View Full-Text
Keywords: Landsat NDVI; time series; large prehistoric sites; Hausdorff distance; crops phenology Landsat NDVI; time series; large prehistoric sites; Hausdorff distance; crops phenology
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pan, Y.; Nie, Y.; Watene, C.; Zhu, J.; Liu, F. Phenological Observations on Classical Prehistoric Sites in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yellow River Based on Landsat NDVI Time Series. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 374.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top