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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(2), 182; doi:10.3390/rs9020182

Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing

1
Department of Forestry and Natural Resources & Division of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Department of Biology and Environmental Studies, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
3
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 81 Carrigan Drive, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
4
Department of Civil, Environmental and Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
5
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Unit 9100, Box 0948, DPO AA 34002-9998, Miami, FL 34002, USA
6
Department of Evolution, Ecology and Organismal Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicolas Baghdadi, Richard Gloaguen and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 20 October 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 21 February 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1421 KB, uploaded 21 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Ecosystem physical structure, defined by the quantity and spatial distribution of biomass, influences a range of ecosystem functions. Remote sensing tools permit the non-destructive characterization of canopy and root features, potentially providing opportunities to link above- and belowground structure at fine spatial resolution in functionally meaningful ways. To test this possibility, we employed ground-based portable canopy LiDAR (PCL) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) along co-located transects in forested sites spanning multiple stages of ecosystem development and, consequently, of structural complexity. We examined canopy and root structural data for coherence (i.e., correlation in the frequency of spatial variation) at multiple spatial scales ≤10 m within each site using wavelet analysis. Forest sites varied substantially in vertical canopy and root structure, with leaf area index and root mass more becoming even vertically as forests aged. In all sites, above- and belowground structure, characterized as mean maximum canopy height and root mass, exhibited significant coherence at a scale of 3.5–4 m, and results suggest that the scale of coherence may increase with stand age. Our findings demonstrate that canopy and root structure are linked at characteristic spatial scales, which provides the basis to optimize scales of observation. Our study highlights the potential, and limitations, for fusing LiDAR and radar technologies to quantitatively couple above- and belowground ecosystem structure. View Full-Text
Keywords: canopy; root; biomass; spatial wavelet coherence; radar; LiDAR canopy; root; biomass; spatial wavelet coherence; radar; LiDAR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hardiman, B.S.; Gough, C.M.; Butnor, J.R.; Bohrer, G.; Detto, M.; Curtis, P.S. Coupling Fine-Scale Root and Canopy Structure Using Ground-Based Remote Sensing. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 182.

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