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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(12), 1213; doi:10.3390/rs9121213

Geomorphological Dating of Pleistocene Conglomerates in Central Slovenia Based on Spatial Analyses of Dolines Using LiDAR and Ground Penetrating Radar

1
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Independent Researcher, Miklošičeva 4a, 1230 Domžale, Slovenia
3
Slovenian Environment Agency, Seismology and Geology Office, Vojkova 1b, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 15 November 2017 / Accepted: 17 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in GPR Imaging)
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Abstract

On Kranjsko polje in central Slovenia, carbonate conglomerates have been dated to several Pleistocene glacial phases by relative dating based on the morphostratigrafic mapping and borehole data, and by paleomagnetic and 10Be analyses. To define how the age of conglomerates determines the geomorphological characteristics of karst surface features, morphometrical and distributive spatial analyses of dolines were performed on three test sites including old, middle, and young Pleistocene conglomerates. As dolines on conglomerates are covered by a thick soil cover and show a strong human influence, the ground penetrating radar (GPR) method was first applied to select dolines appropriate for further morphometrical and distributive analyses. A considerable modification of natural morphology was revealed for cultivated dolines, excluding this type of depression from spatial analyses. Input parameters for spatial analyses (doline rim and deepest point) were manually extracted from the 1 × 1 m grid digital elevation model (DEM) originating from the high-resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. Basic geomorphological characteristics, namely circularity index, planar size, depth, and density index of dolines were calculated for each relative age of conglomerates, and common characteristics were determined from these data to establish a general surface typology for a particular conglomerate. The obtained surface typologies were spatially extrapolated to the wider conglomerate area in central Slovenia to test the existent geological dating. Spatial analyses generally confirmed previous dating, while in four areas the geomorphological characteristics of dolines did not correspond to the existing dating and require further revision and modification. Doline populations exhibit specific and common morphometrical and distributive characteristics on conglomerates of a particular age and can be a reliable and fast indicator for their dating. View Full-Text
Keywords: doline; karst; land cultivation; morphometrical analysis; distributive analysis; conglomerate; LiDAR; digital elevation model (DEM); ground penetrating radar (GPR); Kranjsko polje doline; karst; land cultivation; morphometrical analysis; distributive analysis; conglomerate; LiDAR; digital elevation model (DEM); ground penetrating radar (GPR); Kranjsko polje
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MDPI and ACS Style

Čeru, T.; Šegina, E.; Gosar, A. Geomorphological Dating of Pleistocene Conglomerates in Central Slovenia Based on Spatial Analyses of Dolines Using LiDAR and Ground Penetrating Radar. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1213.

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