Next Article in Journal
An Automatic Accurate High-Resolution Satellite Image Retrieval Method
Previous Article in Journal
Submesoscale Sea Surface Temperature Variability from UAV and Satellite Measurements
Article Menu
Issue 11 (November) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(11), 1091; doi:10.3390/rs9111091

Robinia pseudoacacia L. Flower Analyzed by Using An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

1
Forest Growth and Yield Science, School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technische Universität München, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, 85354 Freising, Germany
2
Forestry and Ecosystem Management, University of Applied Science Erfurt, Leipziger Straße 77, 99085 Erfurt, Germany
3
Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology, University of Greifswald, Soldmannstrasse 15, 17489 Greifswald, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 26 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Forest Remote Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3461 KB, uploaded 28 November 2017]   |  

Abstract

Tree flowers are important for flower–insect relationships, seeds, fruits, and honey production. Flowers are difficult to analyze, particularly in complex ecosystems such as forests. However, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) enable detailed analyses with high spatial resolution, and avoid destruction of sensitive ecosystems. In this study, we hypothesize that UAVs can be used to estimate the number of existing flowers, the quantity of nectar, and habitat potential for honeybees (Apis mellifera). To test this idea, in 2017 we combined UAV image analysis with manual counting and weighing of the flowers of eight-year-old black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) trees to calculate the number of flowers, their surface area, and their volume. Estimates of flower surface area ranged from 2.97 to 0.03% as the flying altitude above the crowns increased from 2.6 m to 92.6 m. Second, for the horizontal analysis, a 133 m2 flower area at a one-hectare black locust plantation was monitored in 2017 by a UAV. Flower numbers ranged from 1913 to 15,559 per tree with an average surface area of 1.92 cm2 and average volume of 5.96 cm3. The UAV monitored 11% of the total surface and 3% of the total volume. Consequently, at the one-hectare black locust study area we estimate 5.3 million flowers (69 kg honey), which is sufficient for one bee hive to survive for one year. View Full-Text
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs); tree blossoms; Robinia pseudoacacia L.; honeybees unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs); tree blossoms; Robinia pseudoacacia L.; honeybees
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Carl, C.; Landgraf, D.; van der Maaten-Theunissen, M.; Biber, P.; Pretzsch, H. Robinia pseudoacacia L. Flower Analyzed by Using An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1091.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top