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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(11), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9111090

Terrestrial Laser Scanning Intensity Correction by Piecewise Fitting and Overlap-Driven Adjustment

1
State Key Laboratory of Inertial Science and Technology, School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
2
Key Laboratory of Micro-nano Measurement-Manipulation and Physics of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 22 October 2017 / Accepted: 23 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
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Abstract

Terrestrial laser scanning sensors deliver not only three-dimensional geometric information of the scanned objects but also the intensity data of returned laser pulse. Recent studies have demonstrated potential applications of intensity data from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). However, the distance and incident angle effects distort the TLS raw intensity data. To overcome the distortions, a new intensity correction method by combining the piecewise fitting and overlap-driven adjustment approaches was proposed in this study. The distance effect is eliminated by the piecewise fitting approach. The incident angle effect is eliminated by overlap-driven adjustment using the Oren–Nayar model that employs the surface roughness parameter of the scanned object. The surface roughness parameter at a certain point in an overlapped region of the multi-station scans is estimated by using the raw intensity data from two different stations at the point rather than estimated by averaging the surface roughness at other positions for each kind of object, which eliminates the estimation deviation. Experimental results obtained by using a TLS sensor (Riegl VZ-400i) demonstrate that the proposed method is valid and the deviations of the retrieved reflectance values from those measured by a spectrometer are all less than 3%. View Full-Text
Keywords: intensity correction; terrestrial laser scanning; roughness; Oren–Nayar model; overlap-driven intensity correction; terrestrial laser scanning; roughness; Oren–Nayar model; overlap-driven
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Xu, T.; Xu, L.; Yang, B.; Li, X.; Yao, J. Terrestrial Laser Scanning Intensity Correction by Piecewise Fitting and Overlap-Driven Adjustment. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1090.

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