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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(8), 640; doi:10.3390/rs8080640

First Experiences in Mapping Lake Water Quality Parameters with Sentinel-2 MSI Imagery

1
Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Mäealuse 14, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia
2
Centre for Limnology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Clement Atzberger and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 18 March 2016 / Revised: 10 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 August 2016 / Published: 5 August 2016
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Abstract

The importance of lakes and reservoirs leads to the high need for monitoring lake water quality both at local and global scales. The aim of the study was to test suitability of Sentinel-2 Multispectral Imager’s (MSI) data for mapping different lake water quality parameters. In situ data of chlorophyll a (Chl a), water color, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from nine small and two large lakes were compared with band ratio algorithms derived from Sentinel-2 Level-1C and atmospherically corrected (Sen2cor) Level-2A images. The height of the 705 nm peak was used for estimating Chl a. The suitability of the commonly used green to red band ratio was tested for estimating the CDOM, DOC and water color. Concurrent reflectance measurements were not available. Therefore, we were not able to validate the performance of Sen2cor atmospheric correction available in the Sentinel-2 Toolbox. The shape and magnitude of water reflectance were consistent with our field measurements from previous years. However, the atmospheric correction reduced the correlation between the band ratio algorithms and water quality parameters indicating the need in better atmospheric correction. We were able to show that there is good correlation between band ratio algorithms calculated from Sentinel-2 MSI data and lake water parameters like Chl a (R2 = 0.83), CDOM (R2 = 0.72) and DOC (R2 = 0.92) concentrations as well as water color (R2 = 0.52). The in situ dataset was limited in number, but covered a reasonably wide range of optical water properties. These preliminary results allow us to assume that Sentinel-2 will be a valuable tool for lake monitoring and research, especially taking into account that the data will be available routinely for many years, the imagery will be frequent, and free of charge. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sentinel-2; lakes; remote sensing; Sen2cor; chlorophyll a; CDOM; dissolved organic carbon; water color; water monitoring Sentinel-2; lakes; remote sensing; Sen2cor; chlorophyll a; CDOM; dissolved organic carbon; water color; water monitoring
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Toming, K.; Kutser, T.; Laas, A.; Sepp, M.; Paavel, B.; Nõges, T. First Experiences in Mapping Lake Water Quality Parameters with Sentinel-2 MSI Imagery. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 640.

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