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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(11), 941; doi:10.3390/rs8110941

Water Constituents and Water Depth Retrieval from Sentinel-2A—A First Evaluation in an Oligotrophic Lake

1
Earth Observation and Modelling, Department of Geography, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 14, Kiel D-24098, Germany
2
German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Münchner Str. 20, Oberpfaffenhofen, Weßling D-82234, Germany
3
Remote Sensing Technology, Technische Universität München, Arcisstr. 21, München D-80333, Germany
4
German Aerospace Center, Remote Sensing Technology Institute, Rutherfordstr. 2, Berlin-Adlershof D-12489, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Clement Atzberger, Deepak R. Mishra and Pradad S. Thenkabail
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 11 November 2016
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Abstract

Satellite remote sensing may assist in meeting the needs of lake monitoring. In this study, we aim to evaluate the potential of Sentinel-2 to assess and monitor water constituents and bottom characteristics of lakes at spatio-temporal synoptic scales. In a field campaign at Lake Starnberg, Germany, we collected validation data concurrently to a Sentinel-2A (S2-A) overpass. We compared the results of three different atmospheric corrections, i.e., Sen2Cor, ACOLITE and MIP, with in situ reflectance measurements, whereof MIP performed best (r = 0.987, RMSE = 0.002 sr−1). Using the bio-optical modelling tool WASI-2D, we retrieved absorption by coloured dissolved organic matter (aCDOM(440)), backscattering and concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in optically deep water; water depths, bottom substrates and aCDOM(440) were modelled in optically shallow water. In deep water, SPM and aCDOM(440) showed reasonable spatial patterns. Comparisons with in situ data (mean: 0.43 m−1) showed an underestimation of S2-A derived aCDOM(440) (mean: 0.14 m−1); S2-A backscattering of SPM was slightly higher than backscattering from in situ data (mean: 0.027 m−1 vs. 0.019 m−1). Chlorophyll-a concentrations (~1 mg·m−3) of the lake were too low for a retrieval. In shallow water, retrieved water depths exhibited a high correlation with echo sounding data (r = 0.95, residual standard deviation = 0.12 m) up to 2.5 m (Secchi disk depth: 4.2 m), though water depths were slightly underestimated (RMSE = 0.56 m). In deeper water, Sentinel-2A bands were incapable of allowing a WASI-2D based separation of macrophytes and sediment which led to erroneous water depths. Overall, the results encourage further research on lakes with varying optical properties and trophic states with Sentinel-2A. View Full-Text
Keywords: WASI; atmospheric correction; bathymetry; submerged vegetation; sun glint; water quality; validation; inland waters; inverse modelling WASI; atmospheric correction; bathymetry; submerged vegetation; sun glint; water quality; validation; inland waters; inverse modelling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dörnhöfer, K.; Göritz, A.; Gege, P.; Pflug, B.; Oppelt, N. Water Constituents and Water Depth Retrieval from Sentinel-2A—A First Evaluation in an Oligotrophic Lake. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 941.

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