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Comment published on 20 January 2017, see Remote Sens. 2017, 9(1), 91.

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(10), 829; doi:10.3390/rs8100829

Effects of Urbanization and Seasonal Cycle on the Surface Urban Heat Island Patterns in the Coastal Growing Cities: A Case Study of Casablanca, Morocco

1
Faculty of Sciences Ain Chock, University Hassan II, Casablanca 20100, Morocco
2
Institute of Ecology, Technische Universität, Berlin 10623, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Benjamin Bechtel, Iphigenia Keramitsoglou, Simone Kotthaus, James A. Voogt, Klemen Zakšek, James Campbell, Richard Müller and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 13 June 2016 / Revised: 18 September 2016 / Accepted: 24 September 2016 / Published: 10 October 2016
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Abstract

The urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon is a harmful environmental problem in urban areas affecting both climatic and ecological processes. This paper aims to highlight and monitor the spatial distribution of Surface UHI (SUHI) in the Casablanca region, Morocco, using remote sensing data. To achieve this goal, a time series of Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI-TIRS images was acquired from 1984 to 2016 and analyzed. In addition, nocturnal MODIS images acquired from 2005 to 2015 were used to evaluate the nighttime SUHI. In order to better analyze intense heat produced by urban core, SUHI intensity (SUHII) was computed by quantifying the difference of land surface temperature (LST) between urban and rural areas. The urban core SUHII appears more significant in winter seasons than during summer, while the pattern of SUHII becomes moderate during intermediate seasons. During winter, the average daytime SUHII gradually increased in the residential area of Casablanca and in some small peri-urban cities by more than 1 °C from 1984 to 2015. The industrial areas of the Casablanca region were affected by a significant rise in SUHII exceeding 15 °C in certain industrial localities. In contrast, daytime SUHII shows a reciprocal effect during summer with emergence of a heat island in rural areas and development of cool islands in urban and peri-urban areas. During nighttime, the SUHII remains positive in urban areas year-round with higher values in winter as compared to summer. The results point out that the seasonal cycle of daytime SUHII as observed in the Casablanca region is different from other mid-latitude cities, where the highest values are often observed in summer during the day. View Full-Text
Keywords: Landsat; MODIS; surface urban heat island; cool island; Casablanca; Morocco Landsat; MODIS; surface urban heat island; cool island; Casablanca; Morocco
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bahi, H.; Rhinane, H.; Bensalmia, A.; Fehrenbach, U.; Scherer, D. Effects of Urbanization and Seasonal Cycle on the Surface Urban Heat Island Patterns in the Coastal Growing Cities: A Case Study of Casablanca, Morocco. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 829.

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