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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(10), 826; doi:10.3390/rs8100826

Remote Sensing from Ground to Space Platforms Associated with Terrain Attributes as a Hybrid Strategy on the Development of a Pedological Map

1
Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, São Paulo University, Piracicaba 13418-900, São Paulo State, Brazil
2
BUCHI Labortechnik AG, Meierseggstr 40, Flawil 9230, Switzerland
3
Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Centenário Avenue 303, Piracicaba 13416-000, São Paulo State, Brazil
4
Department of Agronomy, University of Maringá, Maringá 87020-900, Paraná State, Brazil
5
Department of Biosystems Engineering, College of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz, São Paulo University, Piracicaba 13418-900, São Paulo State, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Nicolas Baghdadi and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 16 June 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 8 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Applied to Soils: From Ground to Space)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5380 KB, uploaded 8 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

There is a consensus about the necessity to achieve a quick soil spatial information with few human resources. Remote/proximal sensing and pedotransference are methods that can be integrated into this approach. On the other hand, there is still a lack of strategies indicating on how to put this in practice, especially in the tropics. Thus, the objective of this work was to suggest a strategy for the spatial prediction of soil classes by using soil spectroscopy from ground laboratory spectra to space images platform, as associated with terrain attributes and spectral libraries. The study area is located in São Paulo State, Brazil, which was covered by a regular grid (one per ha), with 473 boreholes collected at top and undersurface. All soil samples were analyzed in laboratory (granulometry and chemical), and scanned with a VIS-NIR-SWIR (400–2500 nm) spectroradiometer. We developed two traditional pedological maps with different detail levels for comparison: TFS-1 regarding orders and subgroups; and TFS-2 with additional information such as color, iron and fertility. Afterwards, we performed a digital soil map, generated by models, which used the following information: (i) predicted soil attributes from undersurface layer (diagnostic horizon), obtained by using a local spectral library; (ii) spectral reflectance of a bare soil surface obtained by Landsat image; and (iii) derivative of terrain attributes. Thus, the digital map was generated by a combination of three variables: remote sensing (Landsat data), proximal sensing (laboratory spectroscopy) and relief. Landsat image with bare soil was used as a first observation of surface. This strategy assisted on the location of topossequences to achieve soil variation in the area. Afterwards, spectral undersurface information from these locations was used to modelize soil attributes quantification (156 samples). The model was used to quantify samples in the entire area by spectra (other 317 samples). Since the surface was bare soil, it was sampled by image spectroscopy. Indeed, topsoil spectral laboratory information presented great similarity with satellite spectra. We observed angle variation on spectra from clayey to sandy soils as differentiated by intensity. Soil lines between bands 3/4 and 5/7 were helpful on the link between laboratory and satellite data. The spectral models of soil attributes (i.e., clay, sand, and iron) presented a high predictive performance (R2 0.71 to 0.90) with low error. The spatial prediction of these attributes also presented a high performance (validations with R2 > 0.78). The models increased spatial resolution of soil weathering information using a known spectral library. Elevation (altitude) improved mapping due to correlation with soil attributes (i.e., clay, iron and chemistry). We observed a close relationship between soil weathering index map and laboratory spectra + image spectra + relief parameters. The color composite of the 5R, 4G and 3B had great performance on the detection of soils along topossequences, since colors went from dark blue to light purple, and were related with soil texture and mineralogy of the region. The comparison between the traditional and digital soil maps showed a global accuracy of 69% for the TFS-1 map and 62% in the TFS-2, with kappa indices of 0.52 and 0.45, respectively. We randomly validated both digital and traditional maps with individual plots at field. We achieve a 75% and 80% agreement for digital and traditional maps, respectively, which allows us to conclude that traditional map is not necessarily the truth and digital is very close. The key of the strategy was to use bare soil image as a first step on the indication of soil variation in the area, indicating in-situ location for sample collection in all depths. The current strategy is innovative since we linked sensors from ground to space in addition with relief parameters and spectral libraries. The strategy indicates a more accurate map with less soil samples and lower cost. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil spectroscopy; digital soil mapping; supervised classification; Landsat; geostatistical methods; pedotransference; soil survey soil spectroscopy; digital soil mapping; supervised classification; Landsat; geostatistical methods; pedotransference; soil survey
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Demattê, J.A.M.; Ramirez-Lopez, L.; Rizzo, R.; Nanni, M.R.; Fiorio, P.R.; Fongaro, C.T.; Medeiros Neto, L.G.; Safanelli, J.L.; da S. Barros, P.P. Remote Sensing from Ground to Space Platforms Associated with Terrain Attributes as a Hybrid Strategy on the Development of a Pedological Map. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 826.

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