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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(9), 11621-11638; doi:10.3390/rs70911621

Dual-Antenna Terrestrial Laser Scanner Georeferencing Using Auxiliary Photogrammetric Observations

Geomatics Program, School of Forest Resources & Conservation, University of Florida, 304 Reed Lab, Gainesville, FL 32611-0565, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Devrim Akca, Nicolas Baghdadi and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 19 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 2 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
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Abstract

Terrestrial laser scanning typically requires the use of artificial targets for registration and georeferencing the data. This equipment can be burdensome to transport and set up, representing expense in both time and labor. Environmental factors such as terrain can sometimes make target placement dangerous or impossible, or lead to weak network geometry and therefore degraded product accuracy. The use of additional sensors can help reduce the required number of artificial targets and, in some cases, eliminate the need for them altogether. The research presented here extends methods for direct georeferencing of terrestrial laser scanner data using a dual GNSS antenna apparatus with additional photogrammetric observations from a scanner-mounted camera. Novel combinations of observations and processing methods were tested on data collected at two disparate sites in order to find the best method in terms of processing efficiency and product quality. In addition, a general model for the scanner and auxiliary data is given which can be used for least-squares adjustment and uncertainty estimation in similar systems with varied and diverse configurations. We found that the dual-antenna system resulted in cm-level accuracy practical for many applications and superior to conventional one-antenna systems, and that auxiliary photogrammetric observation significantly increased accuracy of the dual-antenna solution. View Full-Text
Keywords: terrestrial laser scanning; lidar; photogrammetry; georeferencing; GNSS; least-squares adjustment; sensor modeling terrestrial laser scanning; lidar; photogrammetry; georeferencing; GNSS; least-squares adjustment; sensor modeling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilkinson, B.; Mohamed, A.; Dewitt, B. Dual-Antenna Terrestrial Laser Scanner Georeferencing Using Auxiliary Photogrammetric Observations. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 11621-11638.

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