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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(9), 11389-11402; doi:10.3390/rs70911389

Luminance-Corrected 3D Point Clouds for Road and Street Environments

1
Department of Real Estate, Planning and Geoinformatics, Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research (CoE-LaSR), Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
2
Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Lighting Unit, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
3
Construction and Real Estate Hubic, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, FI-00079 Metropolia, Finland
4
Finnish Geospatial Research Institute (FGI), Centre of Excellence in Laser Scanning Research (CoE-LaSR), Geodeetinrinne 2, FI-02430 Masala, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Randolph H. Wynne and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 3 July 2015 / Revised: 19 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 September 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lidar/Laser Scanning in Urban Environments)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [967 KB, uploaded 8 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

A novel approach to evaluating night-time road and street environment lighting conditions through 3D point clouds is presented. The combination of luminance imaging and 3D point cloud acquired with a terrestrial laser scanner was used for analyzing 3D luminance on the road surface. A calculation of the luminance (cd/m2) was based on the RGB output values of a Nikon D800E digital still camera. The camera was calibrated with a reference luminance source. The relative orientation between the luminance images and intensity image of the 3D point cloud was solved in order to integrate the data sets into the same coordinate system. As a result, the 3D model of road environment luminance is illustrated and the ability to exploit the method for evaluating the luminance distribution on the road surface is presented. Furthermore, the limitations and future prospects of the methodology are addressed. The method provides promising results for studying road lighting conditions in future lighting optimizations. The paper presents the methodology and its experimental application on a road section which consists of five luminaires installed on one side of a two-lane road in Otaniemi, Espoo, Finland. View Full-Text
Keywords: road environment; lighting; 3D; point clouds; luminance; terrestrial laser scanning road environment; lighting; 3D; point clouds; luminance; terrestrial laser scanning
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vaaja, M.T.; Kurkela, M.; Virtanen, J.-P.; Maksimainen, M.; Hyyppä, H.; Hyyppä, J.; Tetri, E. Luminance-Corrected 3D Point Clouds for Road and Street Environments. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 11389-11402.

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