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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(7), 8323-8347; doi:10.3390/rs70708323

StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

1
Department of Surveying and Geomatics Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-515, Iran
2
GFZ German Research Center for Geosciences, D-14473 Potsdam, Germany
3
Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, SE 75236 Uppsala, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Richard Gloaguen and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 17 March 2015 / Revised: 8 June 2015 / Accepted: 9 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015

Abstract

Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm/year below that depth. View Full-Text
Keywords: InSAR; atmospheric correction; topographic correction; modified 3D unwrapping; Damavand volcano; Mosha Fault InSAR; atmospheric correction; topographic correction; modified 3D unwrapping; Damavand volcano; Mosha Fault
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Vajedian, S.; Motagh, M.; Nilfouroushan, F. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 8323-8347.

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