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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(6), 6635-6662; doi:10.3390/rs70606635

Integration of UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Three-Dimensional Mapping and Monitoring of Open-Pit Mine Areas

College of Surveying and Geo-Informatics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092, China
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Academic Editors: Richard Gloaguen and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 28 February 2015 / Revised: 8 May 2015 / Accepted: 18 May 2015 / Published: 26 May 2015
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Abstract

This paper presents a practical framework for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) with application to open-pit mine areas, which includes UAV image and TLS point cloud acquisition, image and cloud point processing and integration, object-oriented classification and three-dimensional (3D) mapping and monitoring of open-pit mine areas. The proposed framework was tested in three open-pit mine areas in southwestern China. (1) With respect to extracting the conjugate points of the stereo pair of UAV images and those points between TLS point clouds and UAV images, some feature points were first extracted by the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) operator and the outliers were identified and therefore eliminated by the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) approach; (2) With respect to improving the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery, the ground control points (GCPs) surveyed from global positioning systems (GPS) and the feature points extracted from TLS were integrated in the bundle adjustment, and three scenarios were designed and compared; (3) With respect to monitoring and mapping the mine areas for land reclamation, an object-based image analysis approach was used for the classification of the accuracy improved UAV ortho-image. The experimental results show that by introduction of TLS derived point clouds as GCPs, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on UAV imagery can be improved. At the same time, the accuracy of geo-positioning based on GCPs form the TLS derived point clouds is close to that based on GCPs from the GPS survey. The results also show that the TLS derived point clouds can be used as GCPs in areas such as in mountainous or high-risk environments where it is difficult to conduct a GPS survey. The proposed framework achieved a decimeter-level accuracy for the generated digital surface model (DSM) and digital orthophoto map (DOM), and an overall accuracy of 90.67% for classification of the land covers in the open-pit mine. View Full-Text
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); photogrammetric processing; terrestrial laser scanning (TLS); geo-positioning; accuracy; open-pit mine areas unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); photogrammetric processing; terrestrial laser scanning (TLS); geo-positioning; accuracy; open-pit mine areas
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tong, X.; Liu, X.; Chen, P.; Liu, S.; Luan, K.; Li, L.; Liu, S.; Liu, X.; Xie, H.; Jin, Y.; Hong, Z. Integration of UAV-Based Photogrammetry and Terrestrial Laser Scanning for the Three-Dimensional Mapping and Monitoring of Open-Pit Mine Areas. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 6635-6662.

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