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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(5), 5849-5878; doi:10.3390/rs70505849

Mapping Annual Precipitation across Mainland China in the Period 2001–2010 from TRMM3B43 Product Using Spatial Downscaling Approach

1
School of Geography and Remote Sensing, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth of CAS and Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100101, China
3
Department of Earth and Environment, Boston University, 675 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA
4
College of Information and Electrical Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2015 / Revised: 23 April 2015 / Accepted: 24 April 2015 / Published: 8 May 2015

Abstract

Spatially explicit precipitation data is often responsible for the prediction accuracy of hydrological and ecological models. Several statistical downscaling approaches have been developed to map precipitation at a high spatial resolution, which are mainly based on the valid conjugations between satellite-driven precipitation data and geospatial predictors. Performance of the existing approaches should be first evaluated before applying them to larger spatial extents with a complex terrain across different climate zones. In this paper, we investigate the statistical downscaling algorithms to derive the high spatial resolution maps of precipitation over continental China using satellite datasets, including the Normalized Distribution Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and the rainfall product from the Tropical Rainfall Monitoring Mission (TRMM). We compare three statistical techniques (multiple linear regression, exponential regression, and Random Forest regression trees) for modeling precipitation to better understand how the selected model types affect the prediction accuracy. Then, those models are implemented to downscale the original TRMM product (3B43; 0.25° resolution) onto the finer grids (1 × 1 km2) of precipitation. Finally we validate the downscaled annual precipitation (a wet year 2001 and a dry year 2010) against the ground rainfall observations from 596 rain gauge stations over continental China. The result indicates that the downscaling algorithm based on the Random Forest regression outperforms, when compared to the linear regression and the exponential regression. It also shows that the addition of the residual terms does not significantly improve the accuracy of results for the RF model. The analysis of the variable importance reveals the NDVI related predictors, latitude, and longitude, elevation are key elements for statistical downscaling, and their weights vary across different climate zones. In particular, the NDVI, which is generally considered as a powerful geospatial predictor for precipitation, correlates weakly with precipitation in humid regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: TRMM 3B43; NDVI; spatial downscaling; precipitation TRMM 3B43; NDVI; spatial downscaling; precipitation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shi, Y.; Song, L.; Xia, Z.; Lin, Y.; Myneni, R.B.; Choi, S.; Wang, L.; Ni, X.; Lao, C.; Yang, F. Mapping Annual Precipitation across Mainland China in the Period 2001–2010 from TRMM3B43 Product Using Spatial Downscaling Approach. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 5849-5878.

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