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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(12), 16537-16554; doi:10.3390/rs71215851

An Adaptive Method of Wave Spectrum Estimation Using X-Band Nautical Radar

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St.John’s, NL A1B 3X5, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xiaofeng Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
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Abstract

In this paper, the dependency of wave spectrum estimation on the analysis window orientation for X-band marine radar data is investigated. The investigation is made for the case where both wind wave and swell components are present. Our results show that more accurate and reliable wave spectrum estimates are obtained when one analysis window for each component (wind waves or swell) is used and is oriented in the up-wave direction of that component. The final wave spectrum estimation is found by averaging the output of those analysis windows. Since the direction of wind waves and swell is not known a priori, a new method is proposed to recursively determine the number and orientation of analysis windows. This method is referred to as the Adaptive Recursive Positioning Method (ARPM). For validation, ocean wave spectra are estimated from X-band marine radar field data using the ARPM and the standard method, using uniformly distributed analysis windows. The results from both methods are compared to ground truth wave spectra acquired using waverider buoy data. Results have shown that the ARPM produces a 10% improvement in the agreement (represented by the correlation coefficient) between the ground truth wave spectrum and the marine radar estimated wave spectrum. This improvement is reflected in a 15% to 30% accuracy enhancement in the wave period estimation and 6 ∘ in peak wave direction. The ARPM not only increases the accuracy of wave period and direction estimation, but it also increases the method’s reliability by producing a lower error standard deviation. Although these improvements are at the price of extra computational time, it has been found that this overhead is acceptable since it is far from the upper bound that requires offline analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; X-band marine radar; ocean wave spectral estimation; adaptive method remote sensing; X-band marine radar; ocean wave spectral estimation; adaptive method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Habashneh, A.-A.; Moloney, C.; Gill, E.W.; Huang, W. An Adaptive Method of Wave Spectrum Estimation Using X-Band Nautical Radar. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 16537-16554.

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