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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(11), 14757-14780; doi:10.3390/rs71114757

Optimal Nodes Selectiveness from WSN to Fit Field Scale Albedo Observation and Validation in Long Time Series in the Foci Experiment Areas, Heihe

1
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100101, China
2
College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875, China
4
College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, No.19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100875, China
Deceased.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Xin Li, Yuei-An Liou, Richard Müller and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 31 July 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1306 KB, uploaded 5 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

To evaluate and improve the quality of land surface albedo products, validation with ground measurements of albedo is crucial over the spatially and temporally heterogeneous land surface. One of the essential steps for satellite albedo product validation is coarse scale observation technique development with long time ground-based measurements. In this paper, the optimal nodes were selected from the wireless sensor network (WSN) to perform observation at large scale and in longer time series for validation of albedo products. The relative difference is used to analyze the spatiotemporal representativeness of each node. The random combination method is used to assess the number of required sites (NRS) and then to identify the most representative combination (MRC). On this basis, an upscaling transform function with different weights for each node in the MRC, which are calculated with the ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regression method, is used to upscale WSN node albedo from point scale to the field scale. This method is illustrated by selecting the optimal nodes and upscaling surface albedo from point observation to the field scale in the Heihe River basin, China. Primary findings are: (a) The method of reducing the number of observations without significant loss of information about surface albedo at field scale is feasible and effective; (b) When only few sensors are available, the most representative locations in time and space should be the first priority; when a number of sensors are available in the heterogeneous land surface, it is preferable to install them in different land surface, rather than the most representative locations; (c) The most representative combination (MRC) combined with the upscaling weight coefficients can give a robust estimate of the field mean surface albedo. These efforts based on ground albedo observations promote the chance to use point information for validation of coarse scale albedo products. Moreover, a preliminary validation of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) albedo product was performed as the tentative application for upscaling predictions. View Full-Text
Keywords: coarse scale; albedo; heterogeneous; long time series; validation coarse scale; albedo; heterogeneous; long time series; validation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, X.; Xiao, Q.; Wen, J.; Liu, Q.; You, D.; Dou, B.; Tang, Y.; Li, X. Optimal Nodes Selectiveness from WSN to Fit Field Scale Albedo Observation and Validation in Long Time Series in the Foci Experiment Areas, Heihe. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 14757-14780.

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