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Remote Sens. 2014, 6(7), 6587-6603; doi:10.3390/rs6076587

The Use of a Hand-Held Camera for Individual Tree 3D Mapping in Forest Sample Plots

1
Department of Remote Sensing and Photogrammetry, Finnish Geodetic Institute, FI-02431 Masala, Finland
2
Department of Geography and Geology, University of Turku, Turku 20014, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 May 2014 / Revised: 2 July 2014 / Accepted: 3 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
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Abstract

This paper evaluated the feasibility of a terrestrial point cloud generated utilizing an uncalibrated hand-held consumer camera at a plot level and measuring the plot at an individual-tree level. Individual tree stems in the plot were detected and modeled from the image-based point cloud, and the diameter-at-breast-height (DBH) of each tree was estimated. The detected-results were compared with field measurements and with those derived from the single-scan terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. The experiment showed that the mapping accuracy was 88% and the root mean squared error of DBH estimates of individual trees was 2.39 cm, which is acceptable for practical applications and was similar to the results achieved using TLS. The main advantages of the image-based point cloud data lie in the low cost of the equipment required for the data collection, the simple and fast field measurements and the automated data processing, which may be interesting and important for certain applications, such as field inventories by landowners who do not have supports from external experts. The disadvantages of the image-based point cloud data include the limited capability of mapping small trees and complex forest stands. View Full-Text
Keywords: forestry; individual tree level; image-based point cloud; laser scanning; terrestrial; hand-held camera forestry; individual tree level; image-based point cloud; laser scanning; terrestrial; hand-held camera
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Liang, X.; Jaakkola, A.; Wang, Y.; Hyyppä, J.; Honkavaara, E.; Liu, J.; Kaartinen, H. The Use of a Hand-Held Camera for Individual Tree 3D Mapping in Forest Sample Plots. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 6587-6603.

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