Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Remote Sens., Volume 6, Issue 5 (May 2014), Pages 3533-4646

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-52
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Tree Heights: Part 3. Model Optimization and Testing over Continental China
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3533-3553; doi:10.3390/rs6053533
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1766 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The ultimate goal of our multi-article series is to demonstrate the Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitation (ASRL) approach for mapping tree heights and biomass. This third article tests the feasibility of the optimized ASRL model over China at both site (14 meteorological [...] Read more.
The ultimate goal of our multi-article series is to demonstrate the Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitation (ASRL) approach for mapping tree heights and biomass. This third article tests the feasibility of the optimized ASRL model over China at both site (14 meteorological stations) and continental scales. Tree heights from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) waveform data are used for the model optimizations. Three selected ASRL parameters (area of single leaf, α; exponent for canopy radius, η; and root absorption efficiency, γ) are iteratively adjusted to minimize differences between the references and predicted tree heights. Key climatic variables (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) are needed for the model simulations. We also exploit the independent GLAS and in situ tree heights to examine the model performance. The predicted tree heights at the site scale are evaluated against the GLAS tree heights using a two-fold cross validation (RMSE = 1.72 m; R2 = 0.97) and bootstrapping (RMSE = 4.39 m; R2 = 0.81). The modeled tree heights at the continental scale (1 km spatial resolution) are compared to both GLAS (RMSE = 6.63 m; R2 = 0.63) and in situ (RMSE = 6.70 m; R2 = 0.52) measurements. Further, inter-comparisons against the existing satellite-based forest height maps have resulted in a moderate degree of agreements. Our results show that the optimized ASRL model is capable of satisfactorily retrieving tree heights over continental China at both scales. Subsequent studies will focus on the estimation of woody biomass after alleviating the discussed limitations. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Object-Based Greenhouse Classification from GeoEye-1 and WorldView-2 Stereo Imagery
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3554-3582; doi:10.3390/rs6053554
Received: 20 February 2014 / Revised: 7 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Remote sensing technologies have been commonly used to perform greenhouse detection and mapping. In this research, stereo pairs acquired by very high-resolution optical satellites GeoEye-1 (GE1) and WorldView-2 (WV2) have been utilized to carry out the land cover classification of an agricultural [...] Read more.
Remote sensing technologies have been commonly used to perform greenhouse detection and mapping. In this research, stereo pairs acquired by very high-resolution optical satellites GeoEye-1 (GE1) and WorldView-2 (WV2) have been utilized to carry out the land cover classification of an agricultural area through an object-based image analysis approach, paying special attention to greenhouses extraction. The main novelty of this work lies in the joint use of single-source stereo-photogrammetrically derived heights and multispectral information from both panchromatic and pan-sharpened orthoimages. The main features tested in this research can be grouped into different categories, such as basic spectral information, elevation data (normalized digital surface model; nDSM), band indexes and ratios, texture and shape geometry. Furthermore, spectral information was based on both single orthoimages and multiangle orthoimages. The overall accuracy attained by applying nearest neighbor and support vector machine classifiers to the four multispectral bands of GE1 were very similar to those computed from WV2, for either four or eight multispectral bands. Height data, in the form of nDSM, were the most important feature for greenhouse classification. The best overall accuracy values were close to 90%, and they were not improved by using multiangle orthoimages. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle An Algorithm for Boundary Adjustment toward Multi-Scale Adaptive Segmentation of Remotely Sensed Imagery
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3583-3610; doi:10.3390/rs6053583
Received: 26 September 2013 / Revised: 2 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
PDF Full-text (3958 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A critical step in object-oriented geospatial analysis (OBIA) is image segmentation. Segments determined from a lower-spatial resolution image can be used as the context to analyse a corresponding image at a higher-spatial resolution. Due to inherent differences in perceptions of a scene [...] Read more.
A critical step in object-oriented geospatial analysis (OBIA) is image segmentation. Segments determined from a lower-spatial resolution image can be used as the context to analyse a corresponding image at a higher-spatial resolution. Due to inherent differences in perceptions of a scene at different spatial resolutions and co-registration, segment boundaries from the low spatial resolution image need to be adjusted before being applied to the high-spatial resolution image. This is a non-trivial task due to considerations such as noise, image complexity, and determining appropriate boundaries, etc. An innovative method was developed in the study to solve this. Adjustments were executed for each boundary pixel based on the minimization of an energy function characterizing local homogeneity. It executed adjustments based on a structure which rewarded movement towards edges, and superior changes towards homogeneity. The developed method was tested on a set of Quickbird, ASTER and a lower resolution, resampled, Quickbird image, over a study area in Ontario, Canada. Results showed that the adjusted-segment boundaries obtained from the lower resolution imagery aligned well with the features in the Quickbird imagery. Full article
Open AccessArticle Damage Mapping of Powdery Mildew in Winter Wheat with High-Resolution Satellite Image
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3611-3623; doi:10.3390/rs6053611
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1444 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major winter wheat disease in China. Accurate delineation of powdery mildew infestations is necessary for site-specific disease management. In this study, high-resolution multispectral imagery of a 25 km2 typical outbreak [...] Read more.
Powdery mildew, caused by the fungus Blumeria graminis, is a major winter wheat disease in China. Accurate delineation of powdery mildew infestations is necessary for site-specific disease management. In this study, high-resolution multispectral imagery of a 25 km2 typical outbreak site in Shaanxi, China, taken by a newly-launched satellite, SPOT-6, was analyzed for mapping powdery mildew disease. Two regions with high representation were selected for conducting a field survey of powdery mildew. Three supervised classification methods—artificial neural network, mahalanobis distance, and maximum likelihood classifier—were implemented and compared for their performance on disease detection. The accuracy assessment showed that the ANN has the highest overall accuracy of 89%, following by MD and MLC with overall accuracies of 84% and 79%, respectively. These results indicated that the high-resolution multispectral imagery with proper classification techniques incorporated with the field investigation can be a useful tool for mapping powdery mildew in winter wheat. Full article
Open AccessArticle Classifying Complex Mountainous Forests with L-Band SAR and Landsat Data Integration: A Comparison among Different Machine Learning Methods in the Hyrcanian Forest
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3624-3647; doi:10.3390/rs6053624
Received: 20 January 2014 / Revised: 9 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forest environment classification in mountain regions based on single-sensor remote sensing approaches is hindered by forest complexity and topographic effects. Temperate broadleaf forests in western Asia such as the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran have already suffered from intense anthropogenic activities. In [...] Read more.
Forest environment classification in mountain regions based on single-sensor remote sensing approaches is hindered by forest complexity and topographic effects. Temperate broadleaf forests in western Asia such as the Hyrcanian forest in northern Iran have already suffered from intense anthropogenic activities. In those regions, forests mainly extend in rough terrain and comprise different stand structures, which are difficult to discriminate. This paper explores the joint analysis of Landsat7/ETM+, L-band SAR and their derived parameters and the effect of terrain corrections to overcome the challenges of discriminating forest stand age classes in mountain regions. We also verified the performances of three machine learning methods which have recently shown promising results using multisource data; support vector machines (SVM), neural networks (NN), random forest (RF) and one traditional classifier (i.e., maximum likelihood classification (MLC)) as a benchmark. The non-topographically corrected ETM+ data failed to differentiate among different forest stand age classes (average classification accuracy (OA) = 65%). This confirms the need to reduce relief effects prior data classification in mountain regions. SAR backscattering alone cannot properly differentiate among different forest stand age classes (OA = 62%). However, textures and PolSAR features are very efficient for the separation of forest classes (OA = 82%). The highest classification accuracy was achieved by the joint usage of SAR and ETM+ (OA = 86%). However, this shows a slight improvement compared to the ETM+ classification (OA = 84%). The machine learning classifiers proved t o be more robust and accurate compared to MLC. SVM and RF statistically produced better classification results than NN in the exploitation of the considered multi-source data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Long-Term Land Subsidence Monitoring of Beijing (China) Using the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) Technique
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3648-3661; doi:10.3390/rs6053648
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Advanced techniques of multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) represent a valuable tool in ground subsidence studies allowing remote investigation of the behavior of mass movements in long time intervals by using large datasets of SAR images covering the same area and acquired at different [...] Read more.
Advanced techniques of multi-temporal InSAR (MT-InSAR) represent a valuable tool in ground subsidence studies allowing remote investigation of the behavior of mass movements in long time intervals by using large datasets of SAR images covering the same area and acquired at different epochs. Beijing is susceptible to subsidence, producing undesirable environmental impacts and affecting dense population. Excessive groundwater withdrawal is thought to be the primary cause of land subsidence, and rapid urbanization and economic development, mass construction of skyscrapers, highways and underground engineering facilities (e.g., subway) are also contributing factors. In this paper, a spatial–temporal analysis of the land subsidence in Beijing was performed using one of the MT-InSAR techniques, referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS). This technique allows monitoring the temporal evolution of a deformation phenomenon, via the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series from a data set of acquired SAR images. 52 C-band ENVISAT ASAR images acquired from June 2003 to August 2010 were used to produce a linear deformation rate map and to derive time series of ground deformation. The results show that there are three large subsidence funnels within this study area, which separately located in Balizhuang-Dajiaoting in Chaoyang district, Wangjing-Laiguangying Chaoyang district, Gaoliying Shunyi district. The maximum settlement center is Wangsiying-Tongzhou along the Beijing express; the subsidence velocity exceeds 110 mm/y in the LOS direction. In particular, we compared the achieved results with leveling measurements that are assumed as reference. The estimated long-term subsidence results obtained by SBAS approach agree well with the development of the over-exploitation of ground water, indicating that SBAS techniques is adequate for the retrieval of land subsidence in Beijing from multi-temporal SAR data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3662-3680; doi:10.3390/rs6053662
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 4 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of [...] Read more.
A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of datasets created in situ. Currently there is no standardized methodology for documentation of in situ spectroscopy data or metadata. This paper presents results of an international experiment comprising a web-based survey and expert panel evaluation that investigated critical metadata in field spectroscopy. The survey participants were a diverse group of scientists experienced in gathering spectroscopy data across a wide range of disciplines. Overall, respondents were in agreement about a core metadataset for generic campaign metadata, allowing for a prioritization of critical metadata elements to be proposed including those relating to viewing geometry, location, general target and sampling properties, illumination, instrument properties, reference standards, calibration, hyperspectral signal properties, atmospheric conditions, and general project details. Consensus was greatest among individual expert groups in specific application domains. The results allow the identification of a core set of metadata fields that enforce long term data storage and serve as a foundation for a metadata standard. This paper is part one in a series about the core elements of a robust and flexible field spectroscopy metadata standard. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Numerical Simulation of Whitecaps and Foam Effects on Satellite Altimeter Response
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3681-3692; doi:10.3390/rs6053681
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1101 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The determination of wave height by active satellite remote sensing, be it Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or altimeter, has been a common practice for many years and is now imbedded on many meteorological and oceanographic forecasting systems. Despite their differences, all active [...] Read more.
The determination of wave height by active satellite remote sensing, be it Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or altimeter, has been a common practice for many years and is now imbedded on many meteorological and oceanographic forecasting systems. Despite their differences, all active sensors are based on the measurement of the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS) of the sea surface, i.e., of its backscattering properties, which in turn depend on the wind velocity. At small and moderate wind speeds, the main mechanism is the formation of ripples (small scale waves); at higher speeds, whitecaps appear, and foam starts playing an essential role in determining NRCS. In the past few years much research effort has gone into clarifying these effects, thus improving the general quality of the measurements. Little work, however, has been devoted so far to consider the vertical spatial variation of backscattering properties, and in particular of the floating foam, over the sea surface. As it is shown in the present paper, the shape of the backscattered electromagnetic impulse in radar altimeters depends on the spatial distribution of foam over the water height in the sea waves and therefore the performance of these instruments in determining Significant Wave Height (Hs) and Sea Surface Level (SSL) is strongly affected by this effect. This work tackles these problems by making use of specially implemented numerical algorithms to simulate both sea surface processes and radar altimeter techniques. Results show that some causes of errors can be better understood and eventually corrected: in particular, the paper deals with the reconstruction of the electromagnetic Sea State Bias (SSB), the well known altimeter ranging error due to the presence of ocean waves on the sea surface. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Improving the Estimation of Above Ground Biomass Using Dual Polarimetric PALSAR and ETM+ Data in the Hyrcanian Mountain Forest (Iran)
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3693-3715; doi:10.3390/rs6053693
Received: 16 December 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1344 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study is to develop models based on both optical and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for above ground dry biomass (hereafter AGB) estimation in mountain forests. We chose the site of the Loveh forest, a part of [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to develop models based on both optical and L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for above ground dry biomass (hereafter AGB) estimation in mountain forests. We chose the site of the Loveh forest, a part of the Hyrcanian forest for which previous attempts to estimate AGB have proven difficult. Uncorrected ETM+ data allow a relatively poor AGB estimation, because topography can hinder AGB estimation in mountain terrain. Therefore, we focused on the use of atmospherically and topographically corrected multispectral Landsat ETM+ and Advanced Land-Observing Satellite/Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS/PALSAR) to estimate forest AGB. We then evaluated 11 different multiple linear regression models using different combinations of corrected spectral and PolSAR bands and their derived features. The use of corrected ETM+ spectral bands and GLCM textures improves AGB estimation significantly (adjusted R2 = 0.59; RMSE = 31.5 Mg/ha). Adding SAR backscattering coefficients as well as PolSAR features and textures increase substantially the accuracy of AGB estimation (adjusted R2 = 0.76; RMSE = 25.04 Mg/ha). Our results confirm that topographically and atmospherically corrected data are indispensable for the estimation of mountain forest’s physical properties. We also demonstrate that only the joint use of PolSAR and multispectral data allows a good estimation of AGB in those regions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Automatic Segmentation of Raw LIDAR Data for Extraction of Building Roofs
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3716-3751; doi:10.3390/rs6053716
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 3 April 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (22754 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Automatic extraction of building roofs from remote sensing data is important for many applications, including 3D city modeling. This paper proposes a new method for automatic segmentation of raw LIDAR (light detection and ranging) data. Using the ground height from a DEM [...] Read more.
Automatic extraction of building roofs from remote sensing data is important for many applications, including 3D city modeling. This paper proposes a new method for automatic segmentation of raw LIDAR (light detection and ranging) data. Using the ground height from a DEM (digital elevation model), the raw LIDAR points are separated into two groups. The first group contains the ground points that form a “building mask”. The second group contains non-ground points that are clustered using the building mask. A cluster of points usually represents an individual building or tree. During segmentation, the planar roof segments are extracted from each cluster of points and refined using rules, such as the coplanarity of points and their locality. Planes on trees are removed using information, such as area and point height difference. Experimental results on nine areas of six different data sets show that the proposed method can successfully remove vegetation and, so, offers a high success rate for building detection (about 90% correctness and completeness) and roof plane extraction (about 80% correctness and completeness), when LIDAR point density is as low as four points/m2. Thus, the proposed method can be exploited in various applications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Detection and Characterization of Hedgerows Using TerraSAR-X Imagery
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3752-3769; doi:10.3390/rs6053752
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 4 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Whilst most hedgerow functions depend upon hedgerow structure and hedgerow network patterns, in many ecological studies information on the fragmentation of hedgerows network and canopy structure is often retrieved in the field in small areas using accurate ground surveys and estimated over [...] Read more.
Whilst most hedgerow functions depend upon hedgerow structure and hedgerow network patterns, in many ecological studies information on the fragmentation of hedgerows network and canopy structure is often retrieved in the field in small areas using accurate ground surveys and estimated over landscapes in a semi-quantitative manner. This paper explores the use of radar SAR imagery to (i) detect hedgerow networks; and (ii) describe the hedgerow canopy heterogeneity using TerraSAR-X imagery. The extraction of hedgerow networks was achieved using an object-oriented method using two polarimetric parameters: the Single Bounce and the Shannon Entropy derived from one TerraSAR-X image. The hedgerow canopy heterogeneity estimated from field measurements was compared with two backscattering coefficients and three polarimetric parameters derived from the same image. The results show that the hedgerow network and its fragmentation can be identified with a very good accuracy (Kappa index: 0.92). This study also reveals the high correlation between one polarimetric parameter, the Shannon entropy, and the canopy fragmentation measured in the field. Therefore, VHSR radar images can both precisely detect the presence of wooded hedgerow networks and characterize their structure, which cannot be achieved with optical images. Full article
Open AccessArticle Land Cover Classification for Polarimetric SAR Images Based on Mixture Models
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3770-3790; doi:10.3390/rs6053770
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4513 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, two mixture models are proposed for modeling heterogeneous regions in single-look and multi-look polarimetric SAR images, along with their corresponding maximum likelihood classifiers for land cover classification. The classical Gaussian and Wishart models are suitable for modeling scattering vectors [...] Read more.
In this paper, two mixture models are proposed for modeling heterogeneous regions in single-look and multi-look polarimetric SAR images, along with their corresponding maximum likelihood classifiers for land cover classification. The classical Gaussian and Wishart models are suitable for modeling scattering vectors and covariance matrices from homogeneous regions, while their performance deteriorates for regions that are heterogeneous. By comparison, the proposed mixture models reduce the modeling error by expressing the data distribution as a weighted sum of multiple component distributions. For single-look and multi-look polarimetric SAR data, complex Gaussian and complex Wishart components are adopted, respectively. Model parameters are determined by employing the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. Two maximum likelihood classifiers are then constructed based on the proposed mixture models. These classifiers are assessed using polarimetric SAR images from the RADARSAT-2 sensor of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the AIRSAR sensor of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the EMISAR sensor of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Experiment results demonstrate that the new models fit heterogeneous regions preferably to the classical models and are especially appropriate for extremely heterogeneous regions, such as urban areas. The overall accuracy of land cover classification is also improved due to the more refined modeling. Full article
Open AccessArticle Data Transformation Functions for Expanded Search Spaces in Geographic Sample Supervised Segment Generation
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3791-3821; doi:10.3390/rs6053791
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sample supervised image analysis, in particular sample supervised segment generation, shows promise as a methodological avenue applicable within Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA). Segmentation is acknowledged as a constituent component within typically expansive image analysis processes. A general extension to the basic [...] Read more.
Sample supervised image analysis, in particular sample supervised segment generation, shows promise as a methodological avenue applicable within Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA). Segmentation is acknowledged as a constituent component within typically expansive image analysis processes. A general extension to the basic formulation of an empirical discrepancy measure directed segmentation algorithm parameter tuning approach is proposed. An expanded search landscape is defined, consisting not only of the segmentation algorithm parameters, but also of low-level, parameterized image processing functions. Such higher dimensional search landscapes potentially allow for achieving better segmentation accuracies. The proposed method is tested with a range of low-level image transformation functions and two segmentation algorithms. The general effectiveness of such an approach is demonstrated compared to a variant only optimising segmentation algorithm parameters. Further, it is shown that the resultant search landscapes obtained from combining mid- and low-level image processing parameter domains, in our problem contexts, are sufficiently complex to warrant the use of population based stochastic search methods. Interdependencies of these two parameter domains are also demonstrated, necessitating simultaneous optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA))
Figures

Open AccessArticle Surface Temperatures at the Continental Scale: Tracking Changes with Remote Sensing at Unprecedented Detail
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3822-3840; doi:10.3390/rs6053822
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 17 April 2014 / Published: 28 April 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (969 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Temperature is a main driver for most ecological processes, and temperature time series provide key environmental indicators for various applications and research fields. High spatial and temporal resolutions are crucial for detailed analyses in various fields of research. A disadvantage of temperature [...] Read more.
Temperature is a main driver for most ecological processes, and temperature time series provide key environmental indicators for various applications and research fields. High spatial and temporal resolutions are crucial for detailed analyses in various fields of research. A disadvantage of temperature data obtained by satellites is the occurrence of gaps that must be reconstructed. Here, we present a new method to reconstruct high-resolution land surface temperature (LST) time series at the continental scale gaining 250-m spatial resolution and four daily values per pixel. Our method constitutes a unique new combination of weighted temporal averaging with statistical modeling and spatial interpolation. This newly developed reconstruction method has been applied to greater Europe, resulting in complete daily coverage for eleven years. To our knowledge, this new reconstructed LST time series exceeds the level of detail of comparable reconstructed LST datasets by several orders of magnitude. Studies on emerging diseases, parasite risk assessment and temperature anomalies can now be performed on the continental scale, maintaining high spatial and temporal detail. We illustrate a series of applications in this paper. Our dataset is available online for download as time aggregated derivatives for direct usage in GIS-based applications. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Investigating High-Resolution AMSR2 Sea Ice Concentrations during the February 2013 Fracture Event in the Beaufort Sea
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3841-3856; doi:10.3390/rs6053841
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 20 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (29314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Leads with a length on the order of 1000 km occurred in the Beaufort Sea in February 2013. These leads can be observed in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images under predominantly clear sky conditions. Sea ice concentrations (SIC) derived from the [...] Read more.
Leads with a length on the order of 1000 km occurred in the Beaufort Sea in February 2013. These leads can be observed in Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images under predominantly clear sky conditions. Sea ice concentrations (SIC) derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) using the Bootstrap (BST) algorithm fail to show the lead occurrences, as is visible in the MODIS images. In contrast, SIC derived from AMSR2 using the Arctic Radiation and Turbulence Interaction Study (ARTIST) sea ice algorithm (ASI) reveal the lead structure, due to the higher spatial resolution possible when using 89-GHz channel data. The ASI SIC are calculated from brightness temperatures interpolated on three different grids with resolutions of 3.125 km (ASI-3k), 6.25 km (ASI-6k) and 12.5 km (ASI-12k) to investigate the effect of the spatial resolution. Single-swath data is used to study the effect of temporal sampling in comparison to daily averages. For a region of interest in the Beaufort Sea, BST and ASI-3k show area-averaged SIC of 97%±0.7% and 93%±7.0%, respectively. For ASI-6k, the area-averaged SIC are similar to ASI-3k, while ASI-12k data show more agreement with BST. Visual comparison with MODIS True Color imagery exhibits good agreement with ASI-3k. In particular, ASI-3k are able to reproduce lead structure and size in the sea ice cover, which are not or are less visible in the other SIC data. The results will be valuable for selecting a SIC data product for studies of the interaction between ocean, ice, and atmosphere in the polar regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cryospheric Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle A Novel Technique Based on the Combination of Labeled Co-Occurrence Matrix and Variogram for the Detection of Built-up Areas in High-Resolution SAR Images
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3857-3878; doi:10.3390/rs6053857
Received: 26 January 2014 / Revised: 16 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Interests in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data analysis is driven by the constantly increased spatial resolutions of the acquired images, where the geometries of scene objects can be better defined than in lower resolution data. This paper addresses the problem of the [...] Read more.
Interests in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data analysis is driven by the constantly increased spatial resolutions of the acquired images, where the geometries of scene objects can be better defined than in lower resolution data. This paper addresses the problem of the built-up areas extraction in high-resolution (HR) SAR images, which can provide a wealth of information to characterize urban environments. Strong backscattering behavior is one of the distinct characteristics of built-up areas in a SAR image. However, in practical applications, only a small portion of pixels characterizing the built-up areas appears bright. Thus, specific texture measures should be considered for identifying these areas. This paper presents a novel texture measure by combining the proposed labeled co-occurrence matrix technique with the specific spatial variability structure of the considered land-cover type in the fuzzy set theory. The spatial variability is analyzed by means of variogram, which reflects the spatial correlation or non-similarity associated with a particular terrain surface. The derived parameters from the variograms are used to establish fuzzy functions to characterize the built-up class and non built-up class, separately. The proposed technique was tested on TerraSAR-X images acquired of Nanjing (China) and Barcelona (Spain), and on a COSMO-SkyMed image acquired of Hangzhou (China). The obtained classification accuracies point out the effectiveness of the proposed technique in identifying and detecting built-up areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle Change Detection of Tree Biomass with Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Quantitative Structure Modelling
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3906-3922; doi:10.3390/rs6053906
Received: 29 January 2014 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (1470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present a new application of terrestrial laser scanning and mathematical modelling for the quantitative change detection of tree biomass, volume, and structure. We investigate the feasibility of the approach with two case studies on trees, assess the accuracy with laboratory reference [...] Read more.
We present a new application of terrestrial laser scanning and mathematical modelling for the quantitative change detection of tree biomass, volume, and structure. We investigate the feasibility of the approach with two case studies on trees, assess the accuracy with laboratory reference measurements, and identify the main sources of error, and the ways to mitigate their effect on the results. We show that the changes in the tree branching structure can be reproduced with about ±10% accuracy. As the current biomass detection is based on destructive sampling, and the change detection is based on empirical models, our approach provides a non-destructive tool for monitoring important forest characteristics without laborious biomass sampling. The efficiency of the approach enables the repeating of these measurements over time for a large number of samples, providing a fast and effective means for monitoring forest growth, mortality, and biomass in 3D. Full article
Open AccessArticle MAD-MEX: Automatic Wall-to-Wall Land Cover Monitoring for the Mexican REDD-MRV Program Using All Landsat Data
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3923-3943; doi:10.3390/rs6053923
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 29 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (4278 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Estimating forest area at a national scale within the United Nations program of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is primarily based on land cover information using remote sensing technologies. Timely delivery for a country of a size like Mexico [...] Read more.
Estimating forest area at a national scale within the United Nations program of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is primarily based on land cover information using remote sensing technologies. Timely delivery for a country of a size like Mexico can only be achieved in a standardized and cost-effective manner by automatic image classification. This paper describes the operational land cover monitoring system for Mexico. It utilizes national-scale cartographic reference data, all available Landsat satellite imagery, and field inventory data for validation. Seven annual national land cover maps between 1993 and 2008 were produced. The classification scheme defined 9 and 12 classes at two hierarchical levels. Overall accuracies achieved were up to 76%. Tropical and temperate forest was classified with accuracy up to 78% and 82%, respectively. Although specifically designed for the needs of Mexico, the general process is suitable for other participating countries in the REDD+ program to comply with guidelines on standardization and transparency of methods and to assure comparability. However, reporting of change is ill-advised based on the annual land cover products and a combination of annual land cover and change detection algorithms is suggested. Full article
Open AccessArticle Framework of Jitter Detection and Compensation for High Resolution Satellites
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3944-3964; doi:10.3390/rs6053944
Received: 4 March 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Attitude jitter is a common phenomenon in the application of high resolution satellites, which may result in large errors of geo-positioning and mapping accuracy. Therefore, it is critical to detect and compensate attitude jitter to explore the full geometric potential of high [...] Read more.
Attitude jitter is a common phenomenon in the application of high resolution satellites, which may result in large errors of geo-positioning and mapping accuracy. Therefore, it is critical to detect and compensate attitude jitter to explore the full geometric potential of high resolution satellites. In this paper, a framework of jitter detection and compensation for high resolution satellites is proposed and some preliminary investigation is performed. Three methods for jitter detection are presented as follows. (1) The first one is based on multispectral images using parallax between two different bands in the image; (2) The second is based on stereo images using rational polynomial coefficients (RPCs); (3) The third is based on panchromatic images employing orthorectification processing. Based on the calculated parallax maps, the frequency and amplitude of the detected jitter are obtained. Subsequently, two approaches for jitter compensation are conducted. (1) The first one is to conduct the compensation on image, which uses the derived parallax observations for resampling; (2) The second is to conduct the compensation on attitude data, which treats the influence of jitter on attitude as correction of charge-coupled device (CCD) viewing angles. Experiments with images from several satellites, such as ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiaometer), LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter) and ZY-3 (ZiYuan-3) demonstrate the promising performance and feasibility of the proposed framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Mapping Technology and Application)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Automated Training Sample Extraction for Global Land Cover Mapping
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3965-3987; doi:10.3390/rs6053965
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2530 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land cover is one of the essential climate variables of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI). In this context, the Land Cover CCI (LC CCI) project aims at building global land cover maps suitable for climate modeling based on Earth observation by [...] Read more.
Land cover is one of the essential climate variables of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI). In this context, the Land Cover CCI (LC CCI) project aims at building global land cover maps suitable for climate modeling based on Earth observation by satellite sensors.  The  challenge  is  to  generate  a  set  of  successive  maps  that  are  both  accurate and consistent over time. To do so, operational methods for the automated classification of optical images are investigated. The proposed approach consists of a locally trained classification using an automated selection of training samples from existing, but outdated land cover information. Combinations of local extraction (based on spatial criteria) and self-cleaning of training samples (based on spectral criteria) are quantitatively assessed. Two large study areas, one in Eurasia and the other in South America, are considered. The proposed morphological cleaning of the training samples leads to higher accuracies than the statistical outlier removal in the spectral domain. An optimal neighborhood has been identified for the local sample extraction. The results are coherent for the two test areas, showing an improvement of the overall accuracy compared with the original reference datasets and a significant reduction of macroscopic errors. More importantly, the proposed method partly controls the reliability of existing land cover maps as sources of training samples for supervised classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Remote Sensing Image Data)
Open AccessArticle The COSMO-SkyMed Constellation Monitors the Costa Concordia Wreck
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3988-4002; doi:10.3390/rs6053988
Received: 24 January 2014 / Revised: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On 13 January 2012, the Italian vessel, Costa Concordia, wrecked offshore Giglio Island, along the coast of Tuscany (Italy). The ship partially sunk, lying on the starboard side on a 22° steep rocky seabed, making the stability conditions of the ship critically [...] Read more.
On 13 January 2012, the Italian vessel, Costa Concordia, wrecked offshore Giglio Island, along the coast of Tuscany (Italy). The ship partially sunk, lying on the starboard side on a 22° steep rocky seabed, making the stability conditions of the ship critically in danger of sliding, shifting and settling. The tilted position of the ship created also pernicious conditions for the divers involved in the search and rescue operations. It became immediately clear that a continuous monitoring of the position and movements of the ship was of paramount importance to guarantee the security of the people working around and within the wreck. Starting from January 19, the Italian constellation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellites, COSMO-SkyMed (CSK), was tasked to acquire high resolution images of the wreck. Thanks to CSK’s short response and revisiting time and its capability to acquire high resolution images in Spotlight mode, satellite data were integrated within the real time, ground-based monitoring system implemented to provide the civil protection authorities with a regular update on the ship stability. Exploitation of both the phase (satellite radar interferometry, InSAR) and amplitude (speckle tracking) information from CSK images, taken along the acquisition orbit, Enhanced Spotlight (ES)-29, revealed a general movement of the translation of the vessel, consistent with sliding toward the east of the hull on the seabed. A total displacement, with respect to the coastline, of 1666 mm and 345 mm of the bow and stern, respectively, was recorded, over the time period of 19 January–23 March 2012. Full article
Open AccessArticle Spatial Co-Registration of Ultra-High Resolution Visible, Multispectral and Thermal Images Acquired with a Micro-UAV over Antarctic Moss Beds
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4003-4024; doi:10.3390/rs6054003
Received: 17 January 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent times, the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as tools for environmental remote sensing has become more commonplace. Compared to traditional airborne remote sensing, UAVs can provide finer spatial resolution data (up to 1 cm/pixel) and higher temporal resolution data. [...] Read more.
In recent times, the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) as tools for environmental remote sensing has become more commonplace. Compared to traditional airborne remote sensing, UAVs can provide finer spatial resolution data (up to 1 cm/pixel) and higher temporal resolution data. For the purposes of vegetation monitoring, the use of multiple sensors such as near infrared and thermal infrared cameras are of benefit. Collecting data with multiple sensors, however, requires an accurate spatial co-registration of the various UAV image datasets. In this study, we used an Oktokopter UAV to investigate the physiological state of Antarctic moss ecosystems using three sensors: (i) a visible camera (1 cm/pixel), (ii) a 6 band multispectral camera (3 cm/pixel), and (iii) a thermal infrared camera (10 cm/pixel). Imagery from each sensor was geo-referenced and mosaicked with a combination of commercially available software and our own algorithms based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT). The validation of the mosaic’s spatial co-registration revealed a mean root mean squared error (RMSE) of 1.78 pixels. A thematic map of moss health, derived from the multispectral mosaic using a Modified Triangular Vegetation Index (MTVI2), and an indicative map of moss surface temperature were then combined to demonstrate sufficient accuracy of our co-registration methodology for UAV-based monitoring of Antarctic moss beds. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle A Three-Dimensional Index for Characterizing Crop Water Stress
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4025-4042; doi:10.3390/rs6054025
Received: 14 October 2013 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The application of remotely sensed estimates of canopy minus air temperature (Tc-Ta) for detecting crop water stress can be limited in semi-arid regions, because of the lack of full ground cover (GC) at water-critical crop stages. Thus, soil background may [...] Read more.
The application of remotely sensed estimates of canopy minus air temperature (Tc-Ta) for detecting crop water stress can be limited in semi-arid regions, because of the lack of full ground cover (GC) at water-critical crop stages. Thus, soil background may restrict water stress interpretation by thermal remote sensing. For partial GC, the combination of plant canopy temperature and surrounding soil temperature in an image pixel is expressed as surface temperature (Ts). Soil brightness (SB) for an image scene varies with surface soil moisture. This study evaluates SB, GC and Ts-Ta and determines a fusion approach to assess crop water stress. The study was conducted (2007 and 2008) on a commercial scale, center pivot irrigated research site in the Texas High Plains. High-resolution aircraft-based imagery (red, near-infrared and thermal) was acquired on clear days. The GC and SB were derived using the Perpendicular Vegetation Index approach. The Ts-Ta was derived using an array of ground Ts sensors, thermal imagery and weather station air temperature. The Ts-Ta, GC and SB were fused using the hue, saturation, intensity method, respectively. Results showed that this method can be used to assess water stress in reference to the differential irrigation plots and corresponding yield without the use of additional energy balance calculation for water stress in partial GC conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Remote Sensing Image Data)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4043-4060; doi:10.3390/rs6054043
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3070 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was [...] Read more.
LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using this fully automated procedure and post processing increased this accuracy to 90%. In order to assess the sensitivity of the road classification to LiDAR ground point spacing, the LiDAR ground point cloud was repeatedly thinned by a fraction of 0.5 and the classification procedure was reapplied. The producer’s accuracy of the road classification declined from 79% with a ground point spacing of 0.91 to below 50% with a ground point spacing of 2, indicating the importance of high point density for accurate classification of abandoned logging roads. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Decade Long, Multi-Scale Map Comparison of Fire Regime Parameters Derived from Three Publically Available Satellite-Based Fire Products: A Case Study in the Central African Republic
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4061-4089; doi:10.3390/rs6054061
Received: 30 December 2013 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (5888 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although it is assumed that satellite-derived descriptions of fire activity will differ depending on the dataset selected for analysis, as of yet, the effects of failed and false detections at the pixel level and on an instantaneous basis have not been propagated [...] Read more.
Although it is assumed that satellite-derived descriptions of fire activity will differ depending on the dataset selected for analysis, as of yet, the effects of failed and false detections at the pixel level and on an instantaneous basis have not been propagated through space and time to determine their cumulative impact on the characterization of individual fire regime parameters. Here we perform the first ever decade long, multi-scale map comparison of fire chronologies and fire seasonality derived from three publicly available satellite-based fire products: the MODIS active fire product (MCD14ML), the ATSR nighttime World Fire Atlas (WFA), and the MODIS burned area product (MCD45A1). Results indicate that: (i) the agreement between fire chronologies derived from two dissimilar satellite products improves as fire pixels are aggregated into coarser grid cells, but diminishes as the number of years included in the time series increases; and (ii) all three datasets provide distinctly different portraits of the onset, peak, and duration of the fire season regardless of the map resolution. Differences in regional, long-term fire regime parameters derived from the three datasets are attributed to the unique capability of each sensor and detection algorithm to recognize geographical gradients, seasonal oscillations, decadal trends, and interannual variability in active fire characteristics and burned area patterns. Since different satellite sensors and detection algorithm strategies are sensitive to different types of fires, we demonstrate that disagreements in fire regime maps derived from dissimilar satellite-based fire products can be used as an advantage to highlight spatial and temporal transitions in landscape fire activity. Given access to multiple, publically available datasets, we caution against describing fire regimes using a single satellite-based active fire or burned area product. Full article
Open AccessArticle Monitoring Changes in Rice Cultivated Area from SAR and Optical Satellite Images in Ben Tre and Tra Vinh Provinces in Mekong Delta, Vietnam
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4090-4108; doi:10.3390/rs6054090
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to obtain up-to-date information on land use and to identify long term changes in land use, especially rice, aquaculture and other crops in Ben Tre and Tra Vinh provinces in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. Long-term changes in [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to obtain up-to-date information on land use and to identify long term changes in land use, especially rice, aquaculture and other crops in Ben Tre and Tra Vinh provinces in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta. Long-term changes in land-use of the study area have not been studied using long time series of SAR and optical Earth observation (EO) data before. EO data from 1979–2012 was used: ENVISAT ASAR Wide Swath Mode, SPOT and Landsat imagery. An unsupervised ISODATA classification was performed on multitemporal SAR images. The results were validated using ground truth data. Using the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery maps for 2005, 2009 and 2011 were obtained. Different rice crops, aquaculture and fruit trees could be distinguished with an overall accuracy of 80%. Using available optical imagery the time series was extended from 2005 to 1979. Long-term decrease in the rice acreage and increase in the aquaculture acreage could be detected. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Calibrated Full-Waveform Airborne Laser Scanning for 3D Object Segmentation
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4109-4132; doi:10.3390/rs6054109
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 1 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 2 May 2014
PDF Full-text (8380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Segmentation of urban features is considered a major research challenge in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing. However, the dense datasets now readily available through airborne laser scanning (ALS) offer increased potential for 3D object segmentation. Such potential is further augmented [...] Read more.
Segmentation of urban features is considered a major research challenge in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing. However, the dense datasets now readily available through airborne laser scanning (ALS) offer increased potential for 3D object segmentation. Such potential is further augmented by the availability of full-waveform (FWF) ALS data. FWF ALS has demonstrated enhanced performance in segmentation and classification through the additional physical observables which can be provided alongside standard geometric information. However, use of FWF information is not recommended without prior radiometric calibration, taking into account all parameters affecting the backscatter energy. This paper reports the implementation of a radiometric calibration workflow for FWF ALS data, and demonstrates how the resultant FWF information can be used to improve segmentation of an urban area. The developed segmentation algorithm presents a novel approach which uses the calibrated backscatter cross-section as a weighting function to estimate the segmentation similarity measure. The normal vector and the local Euclidian distance are used as criteria to segment the point clouds through a region growing approach. The paper demonstrates the potential to enhance 3D object segmentation in urban areas by integrating the FWF physical backscattered energy alongside geometric information. The method is demonstrated through application to an interest area sampled from a relatively dense FWF ALS dataset. The results are assessed through comparison to those delivered from utilising only geometric information. Validation against a manual segmentation demonstrates a successful automatic implementation, achieving a segmentation accuracy of 82%, and out-performs a purely geometric approach. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Non-MLE Approach for Satellite Scatterometer Wind Vector Retrievals in Tropical Cyclones
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4133-4148; doi:10.3390/rs6054133
Received: 3 July 2013 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
PDF Full-text (1398 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite microwave scatterometers are the principal source of global synoptic-scale ocean vector wind (OVW) measurements for a number of scientific and operational oceanic wind applications. However, for extreme wind events such as tropical cyclones, their performance is significantly degraded. This paper presents [...] Read more.
Satellite microwave scatterometers are the principal source of global synoptic-scale ocean vector wind (OVW) measurements for a number of scientific and operational oceanic wind applications. However, for extreme wind events such as tropical cyclones, their performance is significantly degraded. This paper presents a novel OVW retrieval algorithm for tropical cyclones which improves the accuracy of scatterometer based ocean surface winds when compared to low-flying aircraft with in-situ and remotely sensed observations. Unlike the traditional maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) wind vector retrieval technique, this new approach sequentially estimates scalar wind directions and wind speeds. A detailed description of the algorithm is provided along with results for ten QuikSCAT hurricane overpasses (from 2003–2008) to evaluate the performance of the new algorithm. Results are compared with independent surface wind analyses from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hurricane Research Division’s H*Wind surface analyses and with the corresponding SeaWinds Project’s L2B-12.5 km OVW products. They demonstrate that the proposed algorithm extends the SeaWinds capability to retrieve wind speeds beyond the current range of approximately 35 m/s (minimal hurricane category-1) with improved wind direction accuracy, making this new approach a potential candidate for current and future conically scanning scatterometer wind retrieval algorithms. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determination of Carbonate Rock Chemistry Using Laboratory-Based Hyperspectral Imagery
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4149-4172; doi:10.3390/rs6054149
Received: 6 December 2013 / Revised: 11 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (4474 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The development of advanced laboratory-based imaging hyperspectral sensors, such as SisuCHEMA, has created an opportunity to extract compositional information of mineral mixtures from spectral images. Determining proportions of minerals on rock surfaces based on spectral signature is a challenging approach due to [...] Read more.
The development of advanced laboratory-based imaging hyperspectral sensors, such as SisuCHEMA, has created an opportunity to extract compositional information of mineral mixtures from spectral images. Determining proportions of minerals on rock surfaces based on spectral signature is a challenging approach due to naturally-occurring minerals that exist in the form of intimate mixtures, and grain size variations. This study demonstrates the application of SisuCHEMA hyperspectral data to determine mineral components in hand specimens of carbonate rocks. Here, we applied wavelength position, spectral angle mapper (SAM) and linear spectral unmixing (LSU) approaches to estimate the chemical composition and the relative abundance of carbonate minerals on the rock surfaces. The accuracy of these classification methods and correlation between mineral chemistry and mineral spectral characteristics in determining mineral constituents of rocks are also analyzed. Results showed that chemical composition (Ca-Mg ratio) of carbonate minerals at a pixel (e.g., sub-grain) level can be extracted from the image pixel spectra using these spectral analysis methods. The results also indicated that the spatial distribution and the proportions of calcite-dolomite mixtures on the rock surfaces vary between the spectral methods. For the image shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectra, the wavelength position approach was found to be sensitive to all compositional variations of carbonate mineral mixtures when compared to the SAM and LSU approaches. The correlation between geochemical elements and spectroscopic parameters also revealed the presence of these carbonate mixtures with various chemical compositions in the rock samples. This study concludes that the wavelength position approach is a stable and reproducible technique for estimating carbonate mineral chemistry on the rock surfaces using laboratory-based hyperspectral data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Water Feature Extraction and Change Detection Using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4173-4189; doi:10.3390/rs6054173
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 22 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (1167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lake Urmia is the 20th largest lake and the second largest hyper saline lake (before September 2010) in the world. It is also the largest inland body of salt water in the Middle East. Nevertheless, the lake has been in a critical [...] Read more.
Lake Urmia is the 20th largest lake and the second largest hyper saline lake (before September 2010) in the world. It is also the largest inland body of salt water in the Middle East. Nevertheless, the lake has been in a critical situation in recent years due to decreasing surface water and increasing salinity. This study modeled the spatiotemporal changes of Lake Urmia in the period 2000–2013 using the multi-temporal Landsat 5-TM, 7-ETM+ and 8-OLI images. In doing so, the applicability of different satellite-derived indexes including Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Modified NDWI (MNDWI), Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), Water Ratio Index (WRI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Automated Water Extraction Index (AWEI) were investigated for the extraction of surface water from Landsat data. Overall, the NDWI was found superior to other indexes and hence it was used to model the spatiotemporal changes of the lake. In addition, a new approach based on Principal Components of multi-temporal NDWI (NDWI-PCs) was proposed and evaluated for surface water change detection. The results indicate an intense decreasing trend in Lake Urmia surface area in the period 2000–2013, especially between 2010 and 2013 when the lake lost about one third of its surface area compared to the year 2000. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the NDWI-PCs approach for surface water change detection, especially in detecting the changes between two and three different times, simultaneously. Full article
Open AccessArticle On Line Validation Exercise (OLIVE): A Web Based Service for the Validation of Medium Resolution Land Products. Application to FAPAR Products
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4190-4216; doi:10.3390/rs6054190
Received: 25 February 2014 / Revised: 18 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The OLIVE (On Line Interactive Validation Exercise) platform is dedicated to the validation of global biophysical products such as LAI (Leaf Area Index) and FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation). It was developed under the framework of the CEOS (Committee on [...] Read more.
The OLIVE (On Line Interactive Validation Exercise) platform is dedicated to the validation of global biophysical products such as LAI (Leaf Area Index) and FAPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation). It was developed under the framework of the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites) Land Product Validation (LPV) sub-group. OLIVE has three main objectives: (i) to provide a consistent and centralized information on the definition of the biophysical variables, as well as a description of the main available products and their performances (ii) to provide transparency and traceability by an online validation procedure compliant with the CEOS LPV and QA4EO (Quality Assurance for Earth Observation) recommendations (iii) and finally, to provide a tool to benchmark new products, update product validation results and host new ground measurement sites for accuracy assessment. The functionalities and algorithms of OLIVE are described to provide full transparency of its procedures to the community. The validation process and typical results are illustrated for three FAPAR products: GEOV1 (VEGETATION sensor), MGVIo (MERIS sensor) and MODIS collection 5 FPAR. OLIVE is available on the European Space Agency CAL/VAL portal), including full documentation, validation exercise results, and product extracts. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Spatiotemporal Variations of Global Fractional Vegetation Cover Based on GIMMS NDVI Data from 1982 to 2011
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4217-4239; doi:10.3390/rs6054217
Received: 19 December 2013 / Revised: 27 March 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 5 May 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (3230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is an important biophysical parameter of terrestrial ecosystems. Variation of FVC is a major problem in research fields related to remote sensing applications. In this study, the global FVC from 1982 to 2011 was estimated by GIMMS NDVI [...] Read more.
Fractional vegetation cover (FVC) is an important biophysical parameter of terrestrial ecosystems. Variation of FVC is a major problem in research fields related to remote sensing applications. In this study, the global FVC from 1982 to 2011 was estimated by GIMMS NDVI data, USGS global land cover characteristics data and HWSD soil type data with a modified dimidiate pixel model, which considered vegetation and soil types and mixed pixels decomposition. The evaluation of the robustness and accuracy of the GIMMS FVC with MODIS FVC and Validation of Land European Remote sensing Instruments (VALERI) FVC show high reliability. Trends of the annual FVCmax and FVCmean datasets in the last 30 years were reported by the Mann–Kendall method and Sen’s slope estimator. The results indicated that global FVC change was 0.20 and 0.60 in a year with obvious seasonal variability. All of the continents in the world experience a change in the annual FVCmax and FVCmean, which represents biomass production, except for Oceania, which exhibited a significant increase based on a significance level of p = 0.001 with the Student’s t-test. Global annual maximum and mean FVC growth rates are 0.14%/y and 0.12%/y, respectively. The trends of the annual FVCmax and FVCmean based on pixels also illustrated that the global vegetation had turned green in the last 30 years. A significant trend on the p = 0.05 level was found for 15.36% of the GIMMS FVCmax pixels on a global scale (excluding permanent snow and ice), in which 1.8% exhibited negative trends and 13.56% exhibited positive trends. The GIMMS FVCmean similarly produced a total of 16.64% significant pixels with 2.28% with a negative trend and 14.36% with a positive trend. The North Frigid Zone represented the highest annual FVCmax significant increase (p = 0.05) of 25.17%, which may be caused mainly by global warming, Arctic sea-ice loss and an advance in growing seasons. Better FVC predictions at large regional scales, with high temporal resolution (month) and long time series, would advance our ability to understand the characteristics of the global FVC changes in the last 30 years and predict the response of vegetation to global climate change. Full article
Open AccessArticle Forest Fire Severity Assessment Using ALS Data in a Mediterranean Environment
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4240-4265; doi:10.3390/rs6054240
Received: 2 January 2014 / Revised: 8 April 2014 / Accepted: 15 April 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (4928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mediterranean pine forests in Spain experience wildland fire events with different frequencies, intensities, and severities which result in diverse socio-ecological consequences. In order to predict fire severity, spectral indices derived from remotely sensed images have been used extensively. Such spectral indices are [...] Read more.
Mediterranean pine forests in Spain experience wildland fire events with different frequencies, intensities, and severities which result in diverse socio-ecological consequences. In order to predict fire severity, spectral indices derived from remotely sensed images have been used extensively. Such spectral indices are usually used in combination with ground sampling to relate detected radiometric changes to actual fire effects. However, the potential of the tridimensional information captured by Airborne Laser Scanners (ALS) to severity mapping has been less explored. With the objective of addressing this question, in this paper, explanatory variables extracted from ALS point clouds are related to field estimations of the Composite Burn Index collected in four fires located in Aragón (Spain). Logistic regression models were developed and statistically tested and validated to map fire severity with up to 85.5% accuracy. The canopy relief ratio and the percentage of all returns above one meter height were the most significant variables and were therefore used to create a continuous map of severity levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantifying the Environmental Impact of Forest Fires)
Open AccessArticle Global Ecosystem Response Types Derived from the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index and FPAR3g Series
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4266-4288; doi:10.3390/rs6054266
Received: 16 January 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1661 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Observing trends in global ecosystem dynamics is an important first step, but attributing these trends to climate variability represents a further step in understanding Earth system changes. In the present study, we classified global Ecosystem Response Types (ERTs) based on common spatio-temporal [...] Read more.
Observing trends in global ecosystem dynamics is an important first step, but attributing these trends to climate variability represents a further step in understanding Earth system changes. In the present study, we classified global Ecosystem Response Types (ERTs) based on common spatio-temporal patterns in time-series of Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and FPAR3g anomalies (1982–2011) by using an extended Principal Component Analysis. The ERTs represent region specific spatio-temporal patterns of ecosystems responding to drought or ecosystems with decreasing severity in drought events as well as ecosystems where drought was not a dominant factor in a 30-year period. Highest explanatory values in the SPEI12-FPAR3g anomalies and strongest SPEI12-FPAR3g correlations were seen in the ERTs of Australia and South America whereas lowest explanatory value and lowest correlations were observed in Asia and North America. These ERTs complement traditional pixel based methods by enabling the combined assessment of the location, timing, duration, frequency and severity of climatic and vegetation anomalies with the joint assessment of wetting and drying climatic conditions. The ERTs produced here thus have potential in supporting global change studies by mapping reference conditions of long term ecosystem changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring Global Vegetation with AVHRR NDVI3g Data (1981-2011))
Open AccessArticle Quantifying Responses of Spectral Vegetation Indices to Dead Materials in Mixed Grasslands
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4289-4304; doi:10.3390/rs6054289
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 8 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spectral vegetation indices have been the primary resources for characterizing grassland vegetation based on remotely sensed data. However, the use of spectral indices for vegetation characterization in grasslands has been challenged by the confounding effects from external factors, such as soil properties, [...] Read more.
Spectral vegetation indices have been the primary resources for characterizing grassland vegetation based on remotely sensed data. However, the use of spectral indices for vegetation characterization in grasslands has been challenged by the confounding effects from external factors, such as soil properties, dead materials, and shadowing of vegetation canopies. Dead materials refer to the dead component of vegetation, including fallen litter and standing dead grasses accumulated from previous years. The abundant dead materials have been presenting challenges to accurately estimate green vegetation using spectral vegetation indices (VIs) derived from remote sensing data in mixed grasslands. Therefore, a close investigation of the relationship between VIs and dead materials is needed. The identified relationships could provide better insight into not only using remote sensing data for quantitative estimation of dead materials, but also the improvement of green vegetation estimation in the mixed grassland that has a high proportion of dead materials. In this article, the spectral reflectance of dead materials and green vegetation mixtures and dead material cover were measured in mixed grasslands located in Grassland National Park (GNP), Saskatchewan, Canada. Nine VIs were derived from the measured spectral reflectance. The relationship between dead material cover and VIs was quantified using the regression model and sensitivity analysis. Results indicated that the relationship between dead material cover and VIs is a function of the amount of dead material cover. Weak positive relationship was found between VIs and dead materials where the cover was less than 50%, and a significant high negative relationship was evident when cover was greater than 50%. When the combined exponential and linear model was applied to fit the negative relationships, more than 90% variation in dead material cover could be explained by VIs. Sensitivity analysis was further applied to the developed models, indicating that sensitivities of all VIs were significant over the entire range of dead material cover except for the triangular vegetation index (TVI), which has insignificant sensitivity when dead material cover was greater than 94%. Among all VIs, the weighted difference vegetation index (WDVI) had the highest sensitivity to changes in dead material cover higher than 50%. The results from this study indicated that vegetation indices based on combination of reflectance in red and NIR bands can be used to estimate dead material cover that is greater than 50%. Full article
Open AccessArticle Transferability of a Visible and Near-Infrared Model for Soil Organic Matter Estimation in Riparian Landscapes
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4305-4322; doi:10.3390/rs6054305
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 14 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 9 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1135 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The transferability of a visible and near-infrared (VNIR) model for soil organic matter (SOM) estimation in riparian landscapes is explored. The results indicate that for the soil samples with air-drying, grinding and 2-mm sieving pretreatment, the model calibrated from the soil sample [...] Read more.
The transferability of a visible and near-infrared (VNIR) model for soil organic matter (SOM) estimation in riparian landscapes is explored. The results indicate that for the soil samples with air-drying, grinding and 2-mm sieving pretreatment, the model calibrated from the soil sample set with mixed land-use types can be applied in the SOM prediction of cropland soil samples (r2Pre = 0.66, RMSE = 2.78 g∙kg−1, residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 1.45). The models calibrated from cropland soil samples, however, cannot be transferred to the SOM prediction of soil samples with diverse land-use types and different SOM ranges. Wavelengths in the region of 350–800 nm and around 1900 nm are important for SOM estimation. The correlation analysis reveals that the spectral wavelengths from the soil samples with and without the air-drying, grinding and 2-mm sieving pretreatment are not linearly correlated at each wavelength in the region of 350–1000 nm, which is an important spectral region for SOM estimation in riparian landscapes. This result explains why the models calibrated from samples without pretreatment fail in the SOM estimation. The Kennard–Stone algorithm performed well in the selection of a representative subset for SOM estimation using the spectra of soil samples with pretreatment, but failed in soil samples without the pretreatment. Our study also demonstrates that a widely applicable SOM prediction model for riparian landscapes should be based on a wide range of SOM content. Full article
Open AccessArticle Tree Stem and Height Measurements using Terrestrial Laser Scanning and the RANSAC Algorithm
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4323-4344; doi:10.3390/rs6054323
Received: 3 March 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (745 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Terrestrial laser scanning is a promising technique for automatic measurements of tree stems. The objectives of the study were (1) to develop and validate a new method for the detection, classification and measurements of tree stems and canopies using the Hough transformation [...] Read more.
Terrestrial laser scanning is a promising technique for automatic measurements of tree stems. The objectives of the study were (1) to develop and validate a new method for the detection, classification and measurements of tree stems and canopies using the Hough transformation and the RANSAC algorithm and (2) assess the influence of distance to the scanner on the measurement accuracy. Tree detection and stem diameter estimates were validated for 16 circular plots with 20 m radius. The three dominating tree species were Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and birch (Betula spp.). The proportion of detected trees decreased as the distance to the scanner increased and followed the trend of decreasing visible area. Within 10 m from the scanner, the proportion of detected trees was 87% on average for the plots and the diameter at breast height was estimated with a relative root-mean-square-error (RMSE) of 14%. The most accurate diameter measurements were obtained for pine, which had a RMSE of 7% for all the full 20 m radius plots. The RANSAC algorithm reduced noise and made it possible to obtain reliable estimates. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Methods for Land Surface Temperature Retrieval from Landsat-5 TM Images Applicable to Multiscale Tree-Grass Ecosystem Modeling
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4345-4368; doi:10.3390/rs6054345
Received: 27 November 2013 / Revised: 17 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the key inputs for Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere transfer modeling in terrestrial ecosystems. In the frame of BIOSPEC (Linking spectral information at different spatial scales with biophysical parameters of Mediterranean vegetation in the context of global change) and [...] Read more.
Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the key inputs for Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere transfer modeling in terrestrial ecosystems. In the frame of BIOSPEC (Linking spectral information at different spatial scales with biophysical parameters of Mediterranean vegetation in the context of global change) and FLUXPEC (Monitoring changes in water and carbon fluxes from remote and proximal sensing in Mediterranean “dehesa” ecosystem) projects LST retrieved from Landsat data is required to integrate ground-based observations of energy, water, and carbon fluxes with multi-scale remotely-sensed data and assess water and carbon balance in ecologically fragile heterogeneous ecosystem of Mediterranean wooded grassland (dehesa). Thus, three methods based on the Radiative Transfer Equation were used to extract LST from a series of 2009–2011 Landsat-5 TM images to assess the applicability for temperature input generation to a Landsat-MODIS LST integration. When compared to surface temperatures simulated using MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission 5 (MODTRAN 5) with atmospheric profiles inputs (LSTref), values from Single-Channel (SC) algorithm are the closest (root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) = 0.50 °C); procedure based on the online Radiative Transfer Equation Atmospheric Correction Parameters Calculator (RTE-ACPC) shows RMSD = 0.85 °C; Mono-Window algorithm (MW) presents the highest RMSD (2.34 °C) with systematical LST underestimation (bias = 1.81 °C). Differences between Landsat-retrieved LST and MODIS LST are in the range of 2 to 4 °C and can be explained mainly by differences in observation geometry, emissivity, and time mismatch between Landsat and MODIS overpasses. There is a seasonal bias in Landsat-MODIS LST differences due to greater variations in surface emissivity and thermal contrasts between landcover components. Full article
Open AccessArticle Daily Evaporative Fraction Parameterization Scheme Driven by Day–Night Differences in Surface Parameters: Improvement and Validation
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4369-4390; doi:10.3390/rs6054369
Received: 31 March 2014 / Revised: 29 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a previous study, a daily evaporative fraction (EF) parameterization scheme was derived based on day–night differences in surface temperature, air temperature, and net radiation. Considering the advantage that incoming solar radiation can be readily retrieved from remotely sensed data in comparison [...] Read more.
In a previous study, a daily evaporative fraction (EF) parameterization scheme was derived based on day–night differences in surface temperature, air temperature, and net radiation. Considering the advantage that incoming solar radiation can be readily retrieved from remotely sensed data in comparison with surface net radiation, this study simplified the daily EF parameterization scheme using incoming solar radiation as an input. Daily EF estimates from the simplified scheme were nearly equivalent to the results from the original scheme. In situ measurements from six Ameriflux sites with different land covers were used to validate the new simplified EF parameterization scheme. Results showed that daily EF estimates for clear skies were consistent with the in situ EF corrected by the residual energy method, showing a coefficient of determination of 0.586 and a root mean square error of 0.152. Similar results were also obtained for partly clear sky conditions. The non-closure of the measured energy and heat fluxes and the uncertainty in determining fractional vegetation cover were likely to cause discrepancies in estimated daily EF and measured counterparts. The daily EF estimates of different land covers indicate that the constant coefficients in the simplified EF parameterization scheme are not strongly site-specific. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing)
Open AccessArticle On-Orbit Geometric Calibration Model and Its Applications for High-Resolution Optical Satellite Imagery
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4391-4408; doi:10.3390/rs6054391
Received: 13 January 2014 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (757 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On-orbit geometric calibration is a key technology to guarantee the geometric quality of high-resolution optical satellite imagery. In this paper, we present an approach for the on-orbit geometric calibration of high-resolution optical satellite imagery, focusing on two core problems: constructing an on-orbit [...] Read more.
On-orbit geometric calibration is a key technology to guarantee the geometric quality of high-resolution optical satellite imagery. In this paper, we present an approach for the on-orbit geometric calibration of high-resolution optical satellite imagery, focusing on two core problems: constructing an on-orbit geometric calibration model and proposing a robust calculation method. First, a rigorous geometric imaging model is constructed based on the analysis of the major error sources. Second, we construct an on-orbit geometric calibration model through performing reasonable optimizing and parameter selection of the rigorous geometric imaging model. On this basis, the calibration parameters are partially calculated with a stepwise iterative method by dividing them into two groups: external and internal calibration parameters. Furthermore, to verify the effectiveness of the proposed calibration model and methodology, on-orbit geometric calibration experiments for ZY1-02C panchromatic camera and ZY-3 three-line array camera are conducted using the reference data of the Songshan calibration test site located in the Henan Province, China. The experimental results demonstrate a certain deviation of the on-orbit calibration result from the initial design values of the calibration parameters. Therefore, on-orbit geometric calibration is necessary for optical satellite imagery. On the other hand, by choosing multiple images, which cover different areas and are acquired at different points in time to verify their geometric accuracy before and after calibration, we find that after on-orbit geometric calibration, the geometric accuracy of these images without ground control points is significantly improved. Additionally, due to the effective elimination of the internal distortion of the camera, greater geometric accuracy was achieved with less ground control points than before calibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Mapping Technology and Application)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Estimation of the Image Interpretability of ZY-3 Sensor Corrected Panchromatic Nadir Data
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4409-4429; doi:10.3390/rs6054409
Received: 14 March 2014 / Revised: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Image quality is important for taking full advantage of satellite data. As a common indicator, the National Imagery Interpretability Scale (NIIRS) is widely used for image quality assessment and provides a comprehensive representation of image quality from the perspective of interpretability. The [...] Read more.
Image quality is important for taking full advantage of satellite data. As a common indicator, the National Imagery Interpretability Scale (NIIRS) is widely used for image quality assessment and provides a comprehensive representation of image quality from the perspective of interpretability. The ZY-3 (Ziyuan-3) satellite is the first civil high resolution mapping satellite in China, which was established in 2012. So far, there has been no reports on adopting NIIRS as the common indicator for the quality assessment of that satellite image data. This lack of a common quality indicator results in a gap between satellite data users around the world and those in China regarding the understanding of the quality and usability of ZY-3 data. To overcome the gap, using the general image-quality equation (GIQE), this study evaluates the ZY-3 sensor-corrected (SC) panchromatic nadir (NAD) data in terms of the NIIRS. In order to solve the uncertainty resulting from the exceeding of the ground sample distance (GSD) of ZY-3 data (2.1 m) in GIQE (less than 2.03 m), eight images are used to establish the relationship between the manually obtained NIIRS and the GIQE predicted NIIRS. An adjusted GIQE is based on the relationship and verified by another five images. Our study demonstrates that the method of using adjusted GIQE for calculating NIIRS can be used for the quality assessment of ZY-3 satellite images and reveals that the NIIRS value of ZY-3 SC NAD data is about 2.79. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Satellite Mapping Technology and Application)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Content in a Heterogeneous Grassland with Varying Fire and Grazing Treatments: Konza Prairie, Kansas, USA
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4430-4453; doi:10.3390/rs6054430
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 25 April 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2392 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantitative, spatially explicit estimates of canopy nitrogen are essential for understanding the structure and function of natural and managed ecosystems. Methods for extracting nitrogen estimates via hyperspectral remote sensing have been an active area of research. Much of this research has been [...] Read more.
Quantitative, spatially explicit estimates of canopy nitrogen are essential for understanding the structure and function of natural and managed ecosystems. Methods for extracting nitrogen estimates via hyperspectral remote sensing have been an active area of research. Much of this research has been conducted either in the laboratory, or in relatively uniform canopies such as crops. Efforts to assess the feasibility of the use of hyperspectral analysis in heterogeneous canopies with diverse plant species and canopy structures have been less extensive. In this study, we use in situ and aircraft hyperspectral data to assess several empirical methods for extracting canopy nitrogen from a tallgrass prairie with varying fire and grazing treatments. The remote sensing data were collected four times between May and September in 2011, and were then coupled with the field-measured leaf nitrogen levels for empirical modeling of canopy nitrogen content based on first derivatives, continuum-removed reflectance and ratio-based indices in the 562–600 nm range. Results indicated that the best-performing model type varied between in situ and aircraft data in different months. However, models from the pooled samples over the growing season with acceptable accuracy suggested that these methods are robust with respect to canopy heterogeneity across spatial and temporal scales. Full article
Open AccessArticle Shallow-Water Benthic Identification Using Multispectral Satellite Imagery: Investigation on the Effects of Improving Noise Correction Method and Spectral Cover
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4454-4472; doi:10.3390/rs6054454
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 6 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lyzenga’s method is used widely for radiative transfer analysis because of its simplicity of application to cases of shallow-water coral reef ecosystems with limited information of water properties. WorldView-2 imagery has been used previously to study bottom-type identification in shallow-water coral reef [...] Read more.
Lyzenga’s method is used widely for radiative transfer analysis because of its simplicity of application to cases of shallow-water coral reef ecosystems with limited information of water properties. WorldView-2 imagery has been used previously to study bottom-type identification in shallow-water coral reef habitats. However, this is the first time WorldView-2 imagery has been applied to bottom-type identification using Lyzenga’s method. This research applied both of Lyzenga’s methods: the original from 1981 and the one from 2006 with improved noise correction that uses the near-infrared (NIR) band. The objectives of this study are to examine whether the utilization of NIR bands in the correction of atmospheric and sea-surface scattering improves the accuracy of bottom classification, and whether increasing the number of visible bands also improves accuracy. Firstly, it has been determined that the improved 2006 correction method, which uses NIR bands, is only more accurate than the original 1981 correction method in the case of three visible bands. When applying six bands, the accuracy of the 1981 correction method is better than that of the 2006 correction method. Secondly, the increased number of visible bands, when applied to Lyzenga’s empirical radiative transfer model, improves the accuracy of bottom classification significantly. Full article
Open AccessArticle Time Series Analysis of Land Cover Change: Developing Statistical Tools to Determine Significance of Land Cover Changes in Persistence Analyses
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4473-4497; doi:10.3390/rs6054473
Received: 23 January 2014 / Revised: 22 April 2014 / Accepted: 4 May 2014 / Published: 14 May 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the existence of long term remotely sensed datasets, change detection methods are limited and often remain an obstacle to the effective use of time series approaches in remote sensing applications to Land Change Science. This paper establishes some simple statistical tests [...] Read more.
Despite the existence of long term remotely sensed datasets, change detection methods are limited and often remain an obstacle to the effective use of time series approaches in remote sensing applications to Land Change Science. This paper establishes some simple statistical tests to be applied to NDVI-derived time series of remotely sensed data products. Specifically, the methods determine the statistical significance of three separate metrics of the persistence of vegetation cover or changes within a landscape by comparison to various forms of “benchmarks”; directional persistence (changes in sign relative to some fixed reference value), relative directional persistence (changes in sign relative to the preceding value), and massive persistence (changes in magnitude relative to the preceding value). Null hypotheses are developed on the basis of serially independent, normally distributed random variables. Critical values are established theoretically through consideration of the numeric properties of those variables, application of extensive Monte Carlo simulations, and parallels to random walk processes. Monthly pixel-level NDVI values for the state of Florida are analyzed over 25 years, illustrating the techniques’ abilities to identify areas and/or times of significant change, and facilitate a more detailed understanding of this landscape. The potential power and utility of such techniques is diverse within the area of remote sensing studies and Land Change Science, especially in the context of global change. Full article
Open AccessArticle On the Atmospheric Correction of Antarctic Airborne Hyperspectral Data
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4498-4514; doi:10.3390/rs6054498
Received: 10 January 2014 / Revised: 9 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The first airborne hyperspectral campaign in the Antarctic Peninsula region was carried out by the British Antarctic Survey and partners in February 2011. This paper presents an insight into the applicability of currently available radiative transfer modelling and atmospheric correction techniques for [...] Read more.
The first airborne hyperspectral campaign in the Antarctic Peninsula region was carried out by the British Antarctic Survey and partners in February 2011. This paper presents an insight into the applicability of currently available radiative transfer modelling and atmospheric correction techniques for processing airborne hyperspectral data in this unique coastal Antarctic environment. Results from the Atmospheric and Topographic Correction version 4 (ATCOR-4) package reveal absolute reflectance values somewhat in line with laboratory measured spectra, with Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values of 5% in the visible near infrared (0.4–1 µm) and 8% in the shortwave infrared (1–2.5 µm). Residual noise remains present due to the absorption by atmospheric gases and aerosols, but certain parts of the spectrum match laboratory measured features very well. This study demonstrates that commercially available packages for carrying out atmospheric correction are capable of correcting airborne hyperspectral data in the challenging environment present in Antarctica. However, it is anticipated that future results from atmospheric correction could be improved by measuring in situ atmospheric data to generate atmospheric profiles and aerosol models, or with the use of multiple ground targets for calibration and validation. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Potential of WorldView-2 Data to Classify Tree Species and Different Levels of Ash Mortality
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4515-4545; doi:10.3390/rs6054515
Received: 12 March 2014 / Revised: 4 May 2014 / Accepted: 7 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1686 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Forest disturbances in central Europe caused by fungal pests may result in widespread tree mortality. To assess the state of health and to detect disturbances of entire forest ecosystems, up-to-date knowledge of the tree species diversity is essential. The German state Mecklenburg–Vorpommern [...] Read more.
Forest disturbances in central Europe caused by fungal pests may result in widespread tree mortality. To assess the state of health and to detect disturbances of entire forest ecosystems, up-to-date knowledge of the tree species diversity is essential. The German state Mecklenburg–Vorpommern is severely affected by ash (Fraxinus excelsior) dieback caused by the fungal pathogen Hymenoscyphus pseudoalbidus. In this study, species diversity and the magnitude of ash mortality was assessed by classifying seven different tree species and multiple levels of damaged ash. The study is based on a multispectral WorldView-2 (WV-2) scene and uses object-based supervised classification methods based on multinomial logistic regressions. Besides the original multispectral image, a set of remote sensing indices (RSI) was derived, which significantly improved the accuracies of classifying different levels of damaged ash but only slightly improved tree species classification. The large number of features was reduced by three approaches, of which the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) clearly outperformed the more commonly used principal component analysis (PCA) and a stepwise selection method. Promising overall accuracies (83%) for classifying seven tree species and (73%) for classifying four different levels of damaged ash were obtained. Detailed tree damage and tree species maps were visually inspected using aerial images. The results are of high relevance for forest managers to plan appropriate cutting and reforestation measures to decrease ash dieback over entire regions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Scattering Mechanisms for the “Ear” Feature of Lop Nur Lake Basin
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4546-4562; doi:10.3390/rs6054546
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 29 April 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lop Nur is a famous dry lake in the arid region of China. It was an important section of the ancient “Silk Road”, famous in history as the prosperous communication channel between Eastern and Western cultures. At present, there is no surface [...] Read more.
Lop Nur is a famous dry lake in the arid region of China. It was an important section of the ancient “Silk Road”, famous in history as the prosperous communication channel between Eastern and Western cultures. At present, there is no surface water in Lop Nur Lake basin, and on SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, it looks like an “Ear”. The objective of this paper is to interpret the Lop Nur phenomenon from the perspective of scattering mechanisms. Based on field investigation and analysis of sample properties, a two-layer scattering structure is proposed with detailed explanations of scattering mechanisms. In view of the rough surface, the MIEM (Modified Integral Equation Model) was introduced to represent air-surface scattering in Lop Nur. Then, a two-layer scattering model was developed which can describe surface scattering contribution. Using polarimetric decomposition, validations were carried out, and the RMSE (root mean square error) values for the HH and VV polarizations were found to be 1.67 dB and 1.06 dB, respectively. Furthermore, according to model parametric analysis, surface roughness was identified as an apparent reason for the “Ear” feature. In addition, the polarimetric decomposition result also showed that the volume scattering part had rich texture information and could portray the “Ear” feature exactly compared with the other two parts. It is maintained that subsurface properties, mainly generating volume scattering, can determine the surface roughness under the certain climate conditions, according to geomorphological dynamics, which can help to develop an inversion technology for Lop Nur. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle The Improved NRL Tropical Cyclone Monitoring System with a Unified Microwave Brightness Temperature Calibration Scheme
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4563-4581; doi:10.3390/rs6054563
Received: 14 November 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2014 / Accepted: 6 May 2014 / Published: 19 May 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3416 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The near real-time NRL global tropical cyclone (TC) monitoring system based on multiple satellite passive microwave (PMW) sensors is improved with a new inter-sensor calibration scheme to correct the biases caused by differences in these sensor’s high frequency channels. Since the PMW [...] Read more.
The near real-time NRL global tropical cyclone (TC) monitoring system based on multiple satellite passive microwave (PMW) sensors is improved with a new inter-sensor calibration scheme to correct the biases caused by differences in these sensor’s high frequency channels. Since the PMW sensor 89 GHz channel is used in multiple current and near future operational and research satellites, a unified scheme to calibrate all satellite PMW sensor’s ice scattering channels to a common 89 GHz is created so that their brightness temperatures (TBs) will be consistent and permit more accurate manual and automated analyses. In order to develop a physically consistent calibration scheme, cloud resolving model simulations of a squall line system over the west Pacific coast and hurricane Bonnie in the Atlantic Ocean are applied to simulate the views from different PMW sensors. To clarify the complicated TB biases due to the competing nature of scattering and emission effects, a four-cloud based calibration scheme is developed (rain, non-rain, light rain, and cloudy). This new physically consistent inter-sensor calibration scheme is then evaluated with the synthetic TBs of hurricane Bonnie and a squall line as well as observed TCs. Results demonstrate the large TB biases up to 13 K for heavy rain situations before calibration between TMI and AMSR-E are reduced to less than 3 K after calibration. The comparison stats show that the overall bias and RMSE are reduced by 74% and 66% for hurricane Bonnie, and 98% and 85% for squall lines, respectively. For the observed hurricane Igor, the bias and RMSE decrease 41% and 25% respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of TB calibrations between PMW sensors in order to systematically monitor the global TC life cycles in terms of intensity, inner core structure and convective organization. A physics-based calibration scheme on TC’s TB corrections developed in this study is able to significantly reduce the biases between different PMW sensors. Full article
Figures

Open AccessArticle Improving Classification of Airborne Laser Scanning Echoes in the Forest-Tundra Ecotone Using Geostatistical and Statistical Measures
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4582-4599; doi:10.3390/rs6054582
Received: 26 March 2014 / Revised: 12 May 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vegetation in the forest-tundra ecotone zone is expected to be highly affected by climate change and requires effective monitoring techniques. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been proposed as a tool for the detection of small pioneer trees for such vast areas [...] Read more.
The vegetation in the forest-tundra ecotone zone is expected to be highly affected by climate change and requires effective monitoring techniques. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been proposed as a tool for the detection of small pioneer trees for such vast areas using laser height and intensity data. The main objective of the present study was to assess a possible improvement in the performance of classifying tree and nontree laser echoes from high-density ALS data. The data were collected along a 1000 km long transect stretching from southern to northern Norway. Different geostatistical and statistical measures derived from laser height and intensity values were used to extent and potentially improve more simple models ignoring the spatial context. Generalised linear models (GLM) and support vector machines (SVM) were employed as classification methods. Total accuracies and Cohen’s kappa coefficients were calculated and compared to those of simpler models from a previous study. For both classification methods, all models revealed total accuracies similar to the results of the simpler models. Concerning classification performance, however, the comparison of the kappa coefficients indicated a significant improvement for some models both using GLM and SVM, with classification accuracies >94%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Changing Northern High Latitude Ecosystems)
Open AccessArticle External Validation of the ASTER GDEM2, GMTED2010 and CGIAR-CSI- SRTM v4.1 Free Access Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) in Tunisia and Algeria
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4600-4620; doi:10.3390/rs6054600
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 24 April 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 21 May 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2147 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010) are freely available for nearly the entire earth’s surface. DEMs that are [...] Read more.
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) including Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer-Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and Global Multi-resolution Terrain Elevation Data 2010 (GMTED2010) are freely available for nearly the entire earth’s surface. DEMs that are usually subject to errors need to be evaluated using reference elevation data of higher accuracy. This work was performed to assess the vertical accuracy of the ASTER GDEM version 2, (ASTER GDEM2), the Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research-Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI) SRTM version 4.1 (SRTM v4.1) and the systematic subsample GMTED2010, at their original spatial resolution, using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) validation points. Two test sites, the Anaguid Saharan platform in southern Tunisia and the Tebessa basin in north eastern Algeria, were chosen for accuracy assessment of the above mentioned DEMs, based on geostatistical and statistical measurements. Within the geostatistical approach, empirical variograms of each DEM were compared with those of the GPS validation points. Statistical measures were computed from the elevation differences between the DEM pixel value and the corresponding GPS point. For each DEM, a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was determined for model validation. In addition, statistical tools such as frequency histograms and Q-Q plots were used to evaluate error distributions in each DEM. The results indicate that the vertical accuracy of SRTM model is much higher than ASTER GDEM2 and GMTED2010 for both sites. In Anaguid test site, the vertical accuracy of SRTM is estimated 3.6 m (in terms of RMSE) 5.3 m and 4.5 m for the ASTERGDEM2 and GMTED2010 DEMs, respectively. In Tebessa test site, the overall vertical accuracy shows a RMSE of 9.8 m, 8.3 m and 9.6 m for ASTER GDEM 2, SRTM and GMTED2010 DEM, respectively. This work is the first study to report the lower accuracy of ASTER GDEM2 compared to the GMTED2010 data. Full article
Open AccessArticle Multi-Polarization ASAR Backscattering from Herbaceous Wetlands in Poyang Lake Region, China
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 4621-4646; doi:10.3390/rs6054621
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass) and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In [...] Read more.
Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. There is an urgent need to quantify the biophysical parameters (e.g., plant height, aboveground biomass) and map total remaining areas of wetlands in order to evaluate the ecological status of wetlands. In this study, Environmental Satellite/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ENVISAT/ASAR) dual-polarization C-band data acquired in 2005 is tested to investigate radar backscattering mechanisms with the variation of hydrological conditions during the growing cycle of two types of herbaceous wetland species, which colonize lake borders with different elevation in Poyang Lake region, China. Phragmites communis (L.) Trin. is semi-aquatic emergent vegetation with vertical stem and blade-like leaves, and the emergent Carex spp. has rhizome and long leaves. In this study, the potential of ASAR data in HH-, HV-, and VV-polarization in mapping different wetland types is examined, by observing their dynamic variations throughout the whole flooding cycle. The sensitivity of ASAR backscattering coefficients to vegetation parameters of plant height, fresh and dry biomass, and vegetation water content is also analyzed for Phragmites communis (L.) Trin. and Carex spp. The research for Phragmites communis (L.) Trin. shows that HH polarization is more sensitive to plant height and dry biomass than HV polarization. ASAR backscattering coefficients are relatively less sensitive to fresh biomass, especially in HV polarization. However, both are highly dependent on canopy water content. In contrast, the dependence of HH- and HV- backscattering from Carex community on vegetation parameters is poor, and the radar backscattering mechanism is controlled by ground water level. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Supporting Global Environmental Change Research: A Review of Trends and Knowledge Gaps in Urban Remote Sensing
Remote Sens. 2014, 6(5), 3879-3905; doi:10.3390/rs6053879
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 18 March 2014 / Accepted: 20 March 2014 / Published: 30 April 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (778 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews how remotely sensed data have been used to understand the impact of urbanization on global environmental change. We describe how these studies can support the policy and science communities’ increasing need for detailed and up-to-date information on the multiple [...] Read more.
This paper reviews how remotely sensed data have been used to understand the impact of urbanization on global environmental change. We describe how these studies can support the policy and science communities’ increasing need for detailed and up-to-date information on the multiple dimensions of cities, including their social, biological, physical, and infrastructural characteristics. Because the interactions between urban and surrounding areas are complex, a synoptic and spatial view offered from remote sensing is integral to measuring, modeling, and understanding these relationships. Here we focus on three themes in urban remote sensing science: mapping, indices, and modeling. For mapping we describe the data sources, methods, and limitations of mapping urban boundaries, land use and land cover, population, temperature, and air quality. Second, we described how spectral information is manipulated to create comparative biophysical, social, and spatial indices of the urban environment. Finally, we focus how the mapped information and indices are used as inputs or parameters in models that measure changes in climate, hydrology, land use, and economics. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Remote Sensing Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
remotesensing@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Remote Sensing
Back to Top