Remote Sens. 2014, 6(4), 2647-2663; doi:10.3390/rs6042647
Article

Laboratory Salinization of Brazilian Alluvial Soils and the Spectral Effects of Gypsum

1email, 1email and 2,* email
Received: 31 October 2013; in revised form: 17 March 2014 / Accepted: 19 March 2014 / Published: 25 March 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Irrigation-induced salinization is an important land degradation process that affects crop yield in the Brazilian semi-arid region, and gypsum has been used as a corrective measure for saline soils. Fluvent soil samples (180) were treated with increasing levels of salinization of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The salinity was gauged using electrical conductivity (EC). Gypsum was added to one split of these samples before they were treated by the saline solutions. Laboratory reflectance spectra were measured at nadir under a controlled environment using a FieldSpec spectrometer, a 250-W halogen lamp and a Spectralon panel. Variations in spectral reflectance and brightness were evaluated using principal component analysis, as well as the continuum-removed absorption depths of major features at 1450, 1950, 1750 and 2200 nm for both the gypsum-treated (TG) and non-treated (NTG) air-dried soil samples as a function of EC. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of reflectance and the band depth with EC were also obtained to establish the relationships with salinity. Results showed that NTG samples presented a decrease in reflectance and brightness with increasing CaCl2 and MgCl2 salinization. The reverse was observed for NaCl. Gypsum increased the spectral reflectance of the soil. The best negative correlations between reflectance and EC were observed in the 1500–2400 nm range for CaCl2 and MgCl2, probably because these wavelengths are most affected by water absorption, as Ca and Mg are much more hygroscopic than Na. These decreased after chemical treatment with gypsum. The most prominent features were observed at 1450, 1950 and 1750 nm in salinized-soil spectra. The 2200-nm clay mineral absorption band depth was inversely correlated with salt concentration. From these features, only the 1750 and 2200 nm ones are within atmospheric absorption windows and can be more easily measured using hyperspectral sensors.
Keywords: soil salinity; remote sensing; spectral reflectance; absorption bands; principal components analysis; electrical conductivity; continuum removal; band depth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Moreira, L.C.J.; dos Santos Teixeira, A.; Galvão, L.S. Laboratory Salinization of Brazilian Alluvial Soils and the Spectral Effects of Gypsum. Remote Sens. 2014, 6, 2647-2663.

AMA Style

Moreira LCJ, dos Santos Teixeira A, Galvão LS. Laboratory Salinization of Brazilian Alluvial Soils and the Spectral Effects of Gypsum. Remote Sensing. 2014; 6(4):2647-2663.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Moreira, Luis C.J.; dos Santos Teixeira, Adunias; Galvão, Lênio S. 2014. "Laboratory Salinization of Brazilian Alluvial Soils and the Spectral Effects of Gypsum." Remote Sens. 6, no. 4: 2647-2663.

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