Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Remote Sens. 2013, 5(5), 2072-2092; doi:10.3390/rs5052072
Article

Large-Scale Oceanic Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign from Satellite Observations

1,* , 1
, 2
, 2
, 3
 and 4
Received: 14 February 2013; in revised form: 17 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 April 2013 / Published: 29 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Observing the Ocean’s Interior from Satellite Remote Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1408 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: During the CINDY/DYNAMO field campaign (fall/winter 2011), intensive measurements of the upper ocean, including an array of several surface moorings and ship observations for the area around 75°E–80°E, Equator-10°S, were conducted. In this study, large-scale upper ocean variations surrounding the intensive array during the field campaign are described based on the analysis of satellite-derived data. Surface currents, sea surface height (SSH), sea surface salinity (SSS), surface winds and sea surface temperature (SST) during the CINDY/DYNAMO field campaign derived from satellite observations are analyzed. During the intensive observation period, three active episodes of large-scale convection associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) propagated eastward across the tropical Indian Ocean. Surface westerly winds near the equator were particularly strong during the events in late November and late December, exceeding 10 m/s. These westerlies generated strong eastward jets (>1 m/s) on the equator. Significant remote ocean responses to the equatorial westerlies were observed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres in the central and eastern Indian Oceans. The anomalous SSH associated with strong eastward jets propagated eastward as an equatorial Kelvin wave and generated intense downwelling near the eastern boundary. The anomalous positive SSH then partly propagated westward around 4°S as a reflected equatorial Rossby wave, and it significantly influenced the upper ocean structure in the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge about two months after the last MJO event during the field campaign. For the first time, it is demonstrated that subseasonal SSS variations in the central Indian Ocean can be monitored by Aquarius measurements based on the comparison with in situ observations at three locations. Subseasonal SSS variability in the central Indian Ocean observed by RAMA buoys is explained by large-scale water exchanges between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal through the zonal current variation near the equator.
Keywords: Indian Ocean; Madden-Julian Oscillation; CINDY/DYNAMO; Aquarius; upper ocean variability; satellite observations Indian Ocean; Madden-Julian Oscillation; CINDY/DYNAMO; Aquarius; upper ocean variability; satellite observations
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Shinoda, T.; Jensen, T.G.; Flatau, M.; Chen, S.; Han, W.; Wang, C. Large-Scale Oceanic Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign from Satellite Observations. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 2072-2092.

AMA Style

Shinoda T, Jensen TG, Flatau M, Chen S, Han W, Wang C. Large-Scale Oceanic Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign from Satellite Observations. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(5):2072-2092.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shinoda, Toshiaki; Jensen, Tommy G.; Flatau, Maria; Chen, Sue; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Chunzai. 2013. "Large-Scale Oceanic Variability Associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation during the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign from Satellite Observations." Remote Sens. 5, no. 5: 2072-2092.


Remote Sens. EISSN 2072-4292 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert