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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(9), 1481; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10091481

Dynamics of Permafrost Coasts of Baydaratskaya Bay (Kara Sea) Based on Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data

1
Laboratory of Geoecology of the North, Faculty of Geography, Lomonosov Moscow State University, GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2
Laboratory of Neotectonics and Modern Geodynamics, Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pyzhevsky lane, 7, 119017 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Dynamic Permafrost Regions)
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Abstract

Arctic coasts composed of frozen deposits are extremely sensitive to climate change and human impact. They retreat with average rates of 1–2 m per year, depending on climatic and permafrost conditions. In recent decades, retreat rates have shown a tendency to increase. In this paper, we studied the coastal dynamics of two key sites (Ural and Yamal coasts) of Baydaratskaya Bay, Kara Sea, where a gas pipeline had been constructed. Based on multi-temporal aerial and satellite imagery, we identified coastal erosion rates at several time lapses, in natural conditions and under human impact, and discussed their temporal variability. In addition to planimetric (m/yr), we calculated volumetric (m3/m/yr) retreat rates of erosional coasts using ArcticDEM. We also estimated the influence of geomorphology, lithology, and permafrost structure of the coasts on spatial variations of their dynamics. Erosional coasts of the Ural key site retreat with higher mean rates (1.2 m/yr and 8.7 m3/m/yr) as compared to the Yamal key site (0.3 m/yr and 3.7 m3/m/yr) due to their exposure to higher open sea waves, more complex lithology, higher ice content and lower coastal bluffs. Since the 1960s, coastal retreat rates have been growing on both coasts of Baydaratskaya Bay; we relate this effect with Arctic climate warming. From the 1960s to 2005, such growth was moderate, while in 2005–2016 it became rapid, which may be explained by the enhanced wave and thermal action or by the onset of industrial development. The adjacent coastal segments, originally accumulative, remained relatively stable from the 1960s to 2005. After 2005, a considerable part of them began to retreat as a result of changing weather conditions and/or increasing human impact. View Full-Text
Keywords: permafrost; coastal erosion; Baydaratskaya Bay; remote sensing permafrost; coastal erosion; Baydaratskaya Bay; remote sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Novikova, A.; Belova, N.; Baranskaya, A.; Aleksyutina, D.; Maslakov, A.; Zelenin, E.; Shabanova, N.; Ogorodov, S. Dynamics of Permafrost Coasts of Baydaratskaya Bay (Kara Sea) Based on Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1481.

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