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Remote Sens. 2018, 10(7), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10071113

GPS/BDS Medium/Long-Range RTK Constrained with Tropospheric Delay Parameters from NWP Model

1
College of Geomatics, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
2
Department of Land Surveying and Geoinformatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China
3
Shanghai Meteorological Bureau, Shanghai 200030, China
4
Institute of Ocean Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Atmosphere Remote Sensing)
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Abstract

Tropospheric delay is a major error source that affects the performance of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) Real Time Kinematic (RTK) positioning especially for the medium/long-range baseline. Although high precision tropospheric delay can be estimated by GNSS carrier phase measurement, together with position and ambiguity, a relatively long period of convergence time is necessary. In this study, we develop a new GPS/BDS RTK algorithm constrained with a tropospheric delay parameters from Numerical weather prediction (NWP) model for medium/long-range baselines. The accuracy of the tropospheric delays derived from NWP is assessed through comparisons with the results of GAMIT (GNSS at MIT). The positioning performance with standard GPS RTK, standard GPS/BDS RTK, the developed NWP-constrained GPS RTK and NWP-constrained GPS/BDS RTK over medium/long-range baselines are compared in terms of the initialization time and the positioning accuracy. Experiment results show that the mean differences between the NWP and GAMIT zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) are between −5.50 mm and 5.60 mm, and the RMS values of the NWP ZTD residuals are from 24.02 mm to 32.62 mm. A reduction in the initialization time of over 41% and 58% for medium- and long-range baselines can be achieved with the NWP-constrained RTK (both GPS alone and GPS/BDS RTK solutions) compared to the standard RTK solution, respectively. An improvement of over 30% can be found with the GPS/BDS RTK compared with that of the GPS alone RTK for both standard and the NWP-constrained modes. The positioning precision of NWP-constrained GPS/BDS RTK is better than 3 cm in the horizontal direction and better than 5 cm in the vertical direction, which satisfies the requirement of the precise positioning service. View Full-Text
Keywords: GPS/BDS; RTK; tropospheric delay; NWP model; medium/long-range baseline GPS/BDS; RTK; tropospheric delay; NWP model; medium/long-range baseline
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Xu, Y.; Wu, C.; Li, L.; Yan, L.; Liu, M.; Wang, S. GPS/BDS Medium/Long-Range RTK Constrained with Tropospheric Delay Parameters from NWP Model. Remote Sens. 2018, 10, 1113.

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