Next Article in Journal
Driving Force Analysis of the Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Flash Floods in Sichuan Province
Previous Article in Journal
The Relationship between Waste Management Expenditure and Waste Reduction Targets on Selected JSE Companies
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1480; doi:10.3390/su9091480

Deteriorated Water Quality of Agricultural Catchments in South China by Net Anthropogenic Phosphorus Inputs

1,2,3
,
1,2
,
1,2,* , 1,2
,
1,2
and
1,2
1
Changsha Research Station for Agricultural and Environmental Monitoring, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
2
Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Regions, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, China
3
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 10049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 3 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3022 KB, uploaded 28 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Improper anthropogenic phosphorus (P) management is considered a major cause of water quality deterioration, however the relationship between anthropogenic P input and catchment water quality is rarely quantified in China. The study area encompassed eight small catchments with areas ranging from 58.6 to 13,442.4 ha in the subtropical region of South China. On-site observations of P concentrations, stream fluxes, and social investigation of P input were conducted over a 3-year period. The regional variations of net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs (NAPI) and responses of riverine P export were quantitatively analyzed. Results showed that the total NAPI of catchments varied from 11.04 to 40.52 kg P ha−1 year−1, where cropland systems (NAPIc) were the largest P sources, accounting for 47.7–67.7% in total. Meanwhile, net food and feed P input varied from 3.87 to 30.73 kg P ha−1 year−1, accounting for 35.0–75.8% in total, followed by fertilizer and non-food P input with 4.65–10.48 and 0.63–2.89 kg P ha−1 year−1, respectively. Riverine P export and the soil total P and Olsen–P contents in croplands were all positively related to NAPI (p < 0.05). A simple empirical model was simulated to predict the annual riverine total P fluxes using NAPIc with greater accuracy than with using NAPI or NAPI for residential land (NAPIr). Gray relational analysis suggested that livestock density was the most important influencing factor for NAPI. It is concluded from these results that, although the livestock accounted for the largest part of the NAPI, the cropland contributed the greatest to catchment riverine P export. This probably due to recycling of animal manure for plant cropping systems. Therefore, maintaining a reasonable scale of livestock production, and reducing the internal cycle of manure or replacing part of the chemical fertilizer should be a major approach in reducing NAPI and corresponding riverine P export in the study area. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; eutrophication; NAPI; livestock density; source catchment phosphorus; eutrophication; NAPI; livestock density; source catchment
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Meng, C.; Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, Y.; Wu, J. Deteriorated Water Quality of Agricultural Catchments in South China by Net Anthropogenic Phosphorus Inputs. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1480.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top