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Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1217; doi:10.3390/su9071217

Low-Carbon Transport Policy in Four ASEAN Countries: Developments in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam

1
Faculty of Geo-Information Sciences and Earth Observation, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands
2
Clean Air Asia, 1605 Pasig City, Philippines
3
Asia-Pacific Department, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, 76560 Eschborn, Germany
4
Japanese Studies Department, Ateneo de Manila University, 1108 Quezon City, Philippines
5
Centre for Transport Studies, University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch, South Africa
6
Nijmegen School of Management, Radboud University Nijmegen, Comeniuslaan 4, 6525 HP Nijmegen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 13 July 2017
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Abstract

Emerging countries in Southeast Asia are facing considerable challenges in addressing rising motorisation and its negative impact on air quality, traffic, energy security, liveability, and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the approach and status of sustainable, low-carbon transport policy in ASEAN countries and identifies differences and similarities. The methodology is based on a taxonomy of policy components as developed by Howlett and Cashore. The data come from comprehensive country studies for Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam and interviews with policymakers. We find that each country has a specific set of goals, objectives and targets that support sustainable transport, and, directly or indirectly, climate change mitigation. In terms of specific mechanisms and calibrations, which we analyse based on the Avoid−Shift−Improve approach, there are notable differences between the countries, for example in terms of fuel economy policy. Even though an initial response to climate change mitigation challenges is visible in these countries’ transport policies, much more effort is required to enable a transition to a transport system compatible with long-term climate change and sustainable development targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: transport policy; ASEAN countries; low-carbon transport; comparative analysis; climate change mitigation transport policy; ASEAN countries; low-carbon transport; comparative analysis; climate change mitigation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bakker, S.; Dematera Contreras, K.; Kappiantari, M.; Tuan, N.A.; Guillen, M.D.; Gunthawong, G.; Zuidgeest, M.; Liefferink, D.; van Maarseveen, M. Low-Carbon Transport Policy in Four ASEAN Countries: Developments in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1217.

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