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Sustainability 2017, 9(7), 1126; doi:10.3390/su9071126

Energy Efficiency Drivers in Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Double Bootstrap DEA Analysis

1
Department of Business Administration, University of Verona, Via Cantarane, 24, 37129 Verona, Italy
2
Department of Economics and Management, University of Pisa, Via Ridolfi, 10, 56124 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Energy Sustainability)
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Abstract

The relevance of wastewater treatment service has increased in recent years, since it has a significant impact on the natural environment. A treatment plant facilitates energy generation, the recovery of products from waste, and the reuse of wastewater for industrial and irrigation purposes. An indirect environmental effect is the high energy consumption for pumping water and for tank aeration. The objective of this research is to develop a tool for measuring the energy costs of wastewater treatment plants and identifying how they can be reduced. The method adopted is double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis. The results show that the variables with a significant influence on efficiency are the chemical oxygen demand concentration; plant capacity; rate of used capacity, which positively affects efficiency; weight of industrial customers, which exerts a negative impact; and aeration system, with a negative impact for turbines. This paper suggests the adoption of an effective control tool to monitor the costs drivers and energy expenditure of water utilities. View Full-Text
Keywords: water utilities; wastewater treatment; energy cost; performance; efficiency; treatment plant water utilities; wastewater treatment; energy cost; performance; efficiency; treatment plant
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Guerrini, A.; Romano, G.; Indipendenza, A. Energy Efficiency Drivers in Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Double Bootstrap DEA Analysis. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1126.

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