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Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 767; doi:10.3390/su9050767

Evaluation of Industrial By-Products as Sustainable Pozzolanic Materials in Recycled Aggregate Concrete

1
Centre for Innovative Construction Technology (CICT), Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Civil Engineering, The Islamic University of Gaza, P.O. Box 108, Gaza Strip 79704, Palestine
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bart A. G. Bossink
Received: 25 March 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)

Abstract

The utilization of traditional supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has become more intense in the concrete industry due to their better long-term properties. This research evaluates the fresh and hardened properties of concrete that was developed using a high amount of recycled aggregate (RA) incorporated with sustainable SCMs. Rice husk ash (RHA), palm oil fuel ash (POFA) and palm oil clinker powder (POCP) were used as SCMs at 10%, 20% and 30% cement replacement levels to investigate their positive role in the performance of RA concrete. The results showed that the 10% replacement level of cement by RHA produced the highest strength at all ages tested. Although POFA and POCP were found to negatively affect the strengths at an early age, the hardened properties showed improvement after a relatively long curing time of 90 days. In addition, the targeted compressive strength of 30 MPa was achieved by using SCMs at levels up to 30%. Overall, the sustainable SCMs can reduce the quantity of cement required for concrete production, as well as reduce the conventional cement with the industrial by-products, which are considered as waste materials; thus, the concrete produced using up to 30% of SCMs as a replacement for cement could be considered as more environmentally-friendly concrete. View Full-Text
Keywords: sustainability; supplementary cementitious materials; pozzolans; recycled aggregate concrete; engineering properties sustainability; supplementary cementitious materials; pozzolans; recycled aggregate concrete; engineering properties
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Alnahhal, M.F.; Alengaram, U.J.; Jumaat, M.Z.; Alqedra, M.A.; Mo, K.H.; Sumesh, M. Evaluation of Industrial By-Products as Sustainable Pozzolanic Materials in Recycled Aggregate Concrete. Sustainability 2017, 9, 767.

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