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Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 736; doi:10.3390/su9050736

A Quantitative Assessment of Causes of Bovine Liver Condemnation and Its Implication for Food Security in the Eastern Cape Province South Africa

1
Department of Livestock and Pasture Science, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
2
School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, 13301 Namibia, South Africa
3
Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
4
Department of Biotechnology and Food, Science, Faculty of Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein 2028, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Iain Gordon
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 27 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 3 May 2017
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Abstract

Food production needs to double, with minimum waste, if hunger and poverty is to be alleviated in South Africa. The condemnation of liver during meat inspection represents a huge waste of a protein food resource. This paper measures the quantity of liver condemned in three abattoirs in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa and assesses the causes and the monetary loss associated with these condemnations. A retrospective study (RS) (n = 51 302) involving the use of abattoir slaughter records from 2010–2012 and a post-mortem meat inspection (PMMI) (n = 1374) was conducted from July to December 2013. The RS revealed the leading cause of liver wastage as fasciolosis (5.95%, 4.48%, and 2.7%), fibrosis (2.74%, 2.37%, and 1.0%), and abscessation (1.11%, 2.78%, and 1.5%) for the 2010, 2011, and 2012 respectively. During the PMMI, the same factors caused liver condemnation in addition to calcification (8.3%, 6.8%, and 3.2%), Cysticercosis bovis (1.7%, 2.4%, and 1.3%) and improper evisceration (4.8%, 12.4%, and 27.1%) for the abattoirs X, Y, and Z respectively. A total of R 343, 330 (USD 45,271.07) was lost due to the condemnation of liver between 2010 and 2012. The further loss of 3290.4 kg of liver was calculated for the six month in 2013, and its financial value was R 59, 227.2 (USD 5889.82). The result of this study provide baseline information on major causes of liver wastage in cattle slaughtered in South Africa as well as the direct financial losses and demonstrate the huge waste of ideal protein food source. View Full-Text
Keywords: food waste; liver condemnation; abattoir; meat; Eastern Cape; fasciolosis food waste; liver condemnation; abattoir; meat; Eastern Cape; fasciolosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Jaja, I.F.; Mushonga, B.; Green, E.; Muchenje, V. A Quantitative Assessment of Causes of Bovine Liver Condemnation and Its Implication for Food Security in the Eastern Cape Province South Africa. Sustainability 2017, 9, 736.

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