Next Article in Journal
Modeling Knowledge in Environmental Analysis: A New Approach to Soundscape Ecology
Next Article in Special Issue
Towards Sustainable Public Health Surveillance in India: Using Routinely Collected Electronic Emergency Medical Service Data for Early Warning of Infectious Diseases
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
The Impact of Green Open Space on Community Attachment—A Case Study of Three Communities in Beijing
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 559; doi:10.3390/su9040559

Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ozone and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Mortalities Due to Ozone in Shenzhen

1
Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, MD 6200 Maastricht, The Netherlands
2
China National Environmental Monitoring Centre, Beijing 100012, China
3
Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4
Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2017 / Accepted: 31 March 2017 / Published: 7 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2073 KB, uploaded 7 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

In order to explore the temporal-spatial patterns and possible health effects of ozone in Shenzhen, daily concentrations of ozone and the daily mortality caused by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were collected. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and SPSS, the spatial and temporal patterns of ozone in Shenzhen were illustrated. Using a generalized additive model (GAM), the associations between ozone and cardiovascular and respiratory diseases causing mortality were analyzed, adjusted for meteorological factors and other major air pollutants including fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), and stratified by lag, age, and gender. The results showed that, during 2013, ozone was the second main air pollutant in Shenzhen apart from PM2.5, with average daily concentrations of 95.9 µg/m3 and 76.8 µg/m3 for the ozone 1-h mean and the daily ozone 8-h maximum concentration, respectively. The daily level of ozone had a higher concentration from September to October, and relatively low concentration from May to June. Obviously, a higher concentration was found in central parts of Shenzhen with the largest population, indicating higher risks. The excess risk (ER) percentage of the cardio-respiratory mortality rate showed a clearly accumulative effect at L03, with the highest ER percentage of 1.08 (0.88–1.27) per 10 µg/m3 increase in the ozone 8-h maximum concentration for all the population. Males were found to be more sensitive to ozone compared with females, and the elderly were more susceptible to ozone exposure than younger people. View Full-Text
Keywords: ozone; temporal-spatial patterns; cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; mortality; Shenzhen ozone; temporal-spatial patterns; cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; mortality; Shenzhen
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, L.; Bai, Y.; Zhang, F.; Wang, W.; Liu, X.; Krafft, T. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Ozone and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Disease Mortalities Due to Ozone in Shenzhen. Sustainability 2017, 9, 559.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top