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Sustainability 2017, 9(4), 504; doi:10.3390/su9040504

GHG Emissions from the Production of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles in China

State Key Laboratory of Automotive Safety and Energy, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Liexun Yang, Peng Zhou and Ning Zhang
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 4 April 2017
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With the mass market penetration of electric vehicles, the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions associated with lithium-ion battery production has become a major concern. In this study, by establishing a life cycle assessment framework, GHG emissions from the production of lithium-ion batteries in China are estimated. The results show that for the three types of most commonly used lithium-ion batteries, the (LFP) battery, the (NMC) battery and the (LMO) battery, the GHG emissions from the production of a 28 kWh battery are 3061 kgCO2-eq, 2912 kgCO2-eq and 2705 kgCO2-eq, respectively. This implies around a 30% increase in GHG emissions from vehicle production compared with conventional vehicles. The productions of cathode materials and wrought aluminum are the dominating contributors of GHG emissions, together accounting for around three quarters of total emissions. From the perspective of process energy use, around 40% of total emissions are associated with electricity use, for which the GHG emissions in China are over two times higher than the level in the United States. According to our analysis, it is recommended that great efforts are needed to reduce the GHG emissions from battery production in China, with improving the production of cathodes as the essential measure. View Full-Text
Keywords: greenhouse gas; life cycle assessment; lithium-ion battery; electric vehicle; China greenhouse gas; life cycle assessment; lithium-ion battery; electric vehicle; China

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Hao, H.; Mu, Z.; Jiang, S.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, F. GHG Emissions from the Production of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicles in China. Sustainability 2017, 9, 504.

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