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Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 470; doi:10.3390/su9030470

Agricultural Productivity Growth and the Role of Capital in South Asia (1980–2013)

1
Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU), Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh
2
School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Iain Gordon
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 19 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Agriculture and Development)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [315 KB, uploaded 23 March 2017]

Abstract

The study assessed agricultural sustainability in South Asia (i.e., Bangladesh, Pakistan, India and Nepal) by computing multi-lateral multi-temporal Total Factor Productivity (TFP) indices and their six finer components (technical change, technical-, scale- and mix-efficiency changes, residual scale and residual mix-efficiency changes) and examined the role of capital in driving TFP growth covering a 34-year period (1980–2013). Results revealed that all countries sustained agricultural productivity growth at variable rates with Bangladesh experiencing highest rate estimated @1.05% p.a. followed by India (0.52%), Pakistan (0.38%) and Nepal (0.06% p.a.). There were little or no variation in technical and scale efficiency changes among the countries. However, residual scale efficiency increased @0.44% p.a. in Bangladesh, 0.12% p.a. in Pakistan, remained unchanged in India and declined −0.39% p.a. in Nepal. Similarly, mix efficiency increased @0.44% in Bangladesh, remained unchanged in India and declined @−0.12% p.a.in Pakistan and −0.39% p.a. in Nepal. The major drivers of agricultural TFP growth were the levels of natural, human and technology capital endowments whereas financial capital and crop diversification had opposite effects. Policy implications include land and tenurial reforms aimed at consolidating farm operation size and smooth operation of the land rental market to improve natural capital, investments in education to improve human capital and agricultural R&D to enhance technology capital in order to boost agricultural productivity growth in South Asia. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural total factor productivity; technical-, scale- and mix-efficiency changes; technical change; natural; financial; human and technology capitals; South Asia agricultural total factor productivity; technical-, scale- and mix-efficiency changes; technical change; natural; financial; human and technology capitals; South Asia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Anik, A.R.; Rahman, S.; Sarker, J.R. Agricultural Productivity Growth and the Role of Capital in South Asia (1980–2013). Sustainability 2017, 9, 470.

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