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Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 306; doi:10.3390/su9020306

Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World

School of Energy Systems, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Skinnarilankatu 34, 53850 Lappeenranta, Finland
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Academic Editor: Arnulf Jäger-Waldau
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 15 February 2017 / Published: 19 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Renewable Electricity)
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Abstract

Concerns about climate change and increasing emission costs are drivers for new sources of fuels for Europe. Sustainable hydrocarbons can be produced synthetically by power-to-gas (PtG) and power-to-liquids (PtL) facilities, for sectors with low direct electrification such as aviation, heavy transportation and chemical industry. Hybrid PV–Wind power plants can harvest high solar and wind potentials of the Maghreb region to power these systems. This paper calculates the cost of these fuels for Europe, and presents a respective business case for the Maghreb region. Calculations are hourly resolved to find the least cost combination of technologies in a 0.45° × 0.45° spatial resolution. Results show that, for 7% weighted average cost of capital (WACC), renewable energy based synthetic natural gas (RE-SNG) and RE-diesel can be produced in 2030 for a minimum cost of 76 €/MWhHHV (0.78 €/m3SNG) and 88 €/MWhHHV (0.85 €/L), respectively. While in 2040, these production costs can drop to 66 €/MWhHHV (0.68 €/m3SNG) and 83 €/MWhHHV (0.80 €/L), respectively. Considering access to a WACC of 5% in a de-risking project, oxygen sales and CO2 emissions costs, RE-diesel can reach fuel-parity at crude oil prices of 101 and 83 USD/bbl in 2030 and 2040, respectively. Thus, RE-synthetic fuels could be produced to answer fuel demand and remove environmental concerns in Europe at an affordable cost. View Full-Text
Keywords: hybrid PV–Wind; power-to-gas (PtG); power-to-liquids (PtL); liquefied natural gas (LNG); economics; fuel-parity; Maghreb region; Europe hybrid PV–Wind; power-to-gas (PtG); power-to-liquids (PtL); liquefied natural gas (LNG); economics; fuel-parity; Maghreb region; Europe
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Fasihi, M.; Bogdanov, D.; Breyer, C. Long-Term Hydrocarbon Trade Options for the Maghreb Region and Europe—Renewable Energy Based Synthetic Fuels for a Net Zero Emissions World. Sustainability 2017, 9, 306.

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