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Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 235; doi:10.3390/su9020235

Urbanization and Socioeconomic Development in Inner Mongolia in 2000 and 2010: A GIS Analysis

1
Center for Human-Environment System Sustainability (CHESS), State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology (ESPRE), Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
2
College of Resources Science & Technology, Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Tan Yigitcanlar
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 3 February 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Urban and Rural Development)
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Abstract

Economic indicators and other indices measuring overall development describe local development trajectories differently. In this paper, we illustrated this difference and explored how urbanization is related to development by a case study in Inner Mongolia, China. We calculated the human development index (HDI) and compared the temporal and spatial dynamics of the overall development (represented by the HDI) and economic growth (represented by the GDP) in 2000 and 2010. We conducted partial correlation analysis between the HDI and urbanization rate whilst controlling for the effects of the GDP. Our results showed that the spatial pattern of the HDI was little in 2000 and became clearer in 2010 when the western part tended to have higher values and the northeastern part tended to have lower values. The spatial trend for the GDP was obvious in 2000 as the high values clustered in the northwest and the low values clustered in the southeast but became less obvious in 2010 when high values clustered in several counties in the southwest and low values took up almost the entire northeast and some counties in the middle. Furthermore, we found that the HDI of all the city districts were significantly higher than their surrounding rural counties in both 2000 and 2010. Urbanization rates are found to be positively correlated with the HDI even when we controlled the effects of the GDP (p < 0.001). This study illustrated that the HDI and GDP told different stories on local performance in development at the county level. Translating the fast economic growth into an improvement in education and health relies on many other factors and our results seem to suggest that urbanization is one of these factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: human development index; Inner Mongolia; urbanization; gross domestic product human development index; Inner Mongolia; urbanization; gross domestic product
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Huang, G.; Jiang, Y. Urbanization and Socioeconomic Development in Inner Mongolia in 2000 and 2010: A GIS Analysis. Sustainability 2017, 9, 235.

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