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Sustainability 2017, 9(2), 228; doi:10.3390/su9020228

Synergistic Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Bark Extract and Selected Antibiotics on Bacterial Isolates

1
SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X314, Alice 5700, South Africa
2
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
3
Department of Microbiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220, Osun State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 21 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Development Initiatives towards Poverty Alleviation)
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Abstract

The incidence of resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents by microbial pathogens demands increased effort in the development of effective ways of treating infections and diseases. The n-hexane fraction of lyophilized crude bark extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) was prepared and, in combination with selected antibiotics, assayed for antimicrobial activity against some selected bacterial pathogens using time-kill assay. Protein leakage analysis of the combined agents was performed using Bradford protein quantification method. Determination of active compounds present in the n-hexane fraction was done using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). While time-kill assay detected 43.33% synergy; 56.67% indifference and no antagonism at 1/2 × minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 1 × MIC exhibited 55% synergy, 45% indifference and no antagonism. Protein leakages from the cells of selected bacteria ranged from 1.20 µg/mL to 256.93 µg/mL. The presence of a phenyl group, an aromatic ring and phenolic compounds in the n-hexane fraction was confirmed at 2162 cm−1–2020 cm−1, 1605 cm−1–1533 cm−1 and 1438 cm−1–1444 cm−1 spectra peaks, respectively. The observed antibiotic−n-hexane fraction synergistic interaction revealed the improved antibacterial activity of the selected antibiotics. Hence, exploration of a combination of antibiotics with plant secondary metabolites is hereby advocated in the global quest for means of combating infectious diseases caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. View Full-Text
Keywords: synergy; antimicrobial; pathogens; n-hexane fraction; time-kill assay; protein leakage; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) synergy; antimicrobial; pathogens; n-hexane fraction; time-kill assay; protein leakage; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
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Abioye, O.E.; Akinpelu, D.A.; Okoh, A.I. Synergistic Effects of n-Hexane Fraction of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Bark Extract and Selected Antibiotics on Bacterial Isolates. Sustainability 2017, 9, 228.

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