Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation
AbstractRice cultivation is a vital economic sector of many countries in Asia, including Thailand, with the well-being of people relying significantly on selling rice commodities. Water-intensive rice cultivation is facing the challenge of water scarcity. The study assessed the volumetric freshwater use and water scarcity footprint of the major and second rice cultivation systems in the Chao Phraya, Tha Chin, Mun, and Chi watersheds of Thailand. The results revealed that a wide range of freshwater use, i.e., 0.9–3.0 m3/kg of major rice and 0.9–2.3 m3/kg of second rice, and a high water use of rice was found among the watersheds in the northeastern region, like the Mun and Chi watersheds. However, the water scarcity footprint results showed that the second rice cultivation in watersheds, like in Chao Phraya and Tha Chin in the central region, need to be focused for improving the irrigation water use efficiency. The alternate wetting and drying (AWD) method was found to be a promising approach for substituting the pre-germinated seed broadcasting system to enhance the water use efficiency of second rice cultivation in the central region. Recommendations vis-à-vis the use of the water stress index as a tool for agricultural zoning policy were also discussed. View Full-Text
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Silalertruksa, T.; Gheewala, S.H.; Mungkung, R.; Nilsalab, P.; Lecksiwilai, N.; Sawaengsak, W. Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2283.
Silalertruksa T, Gheewala SH, Mungkung R, Nilsalab P, Lecksiwilai N, Sawaengsak W. Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation. Sustainability. 2017; 9(12):2283.Chicago/Turabian Style
Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Nilsalab, Pariyapat; Lecksiwilai, Naruetep; Sawaengsak, Wanchat. 2017. "Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation." Sustainability 9, no. 12: 2283.